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United Nations SDGs

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  • The aim of this study was to explore home–school collaboration in the areas of assessment, placement, and Individual Education Plan (IEP) development for children identified with disabilities or special educational needs (SEN) in Macao. Despite the noted benefits of parent–school partnerships from prior research, minimal research has been conducted from the perspective of parents of children with SEN to examine whether these partnerships materialize in the context of Macao. Participants included 115 parents of school-aged children diagnosed with SEN. They provided demographic information and completed a 36-item questionnaire derived from two validated instruments. The research identified a range of factors which hinder parental involvement in decision-making and in the inclusion of children with SEN in optimal ways in Macao schools. Parents indicated they were not receiving relevant information and assessment feedback from the teachers; they were minimally involved in the IEP process, and their children were not receiving one-to-one support, regardless of the type of placement. Parents also underlined issues related to the timing of assessment procedures. Parents of children attending special classes in regular schools voiced more satisfaction with support provision than parents of children following the full inclusion model. Recommendations about how services could be improved for greater parental involvement are discussed. Key Words: parental involvement, school–family collaboration, inclusion, special educational needs, Macao, Individual Education Plans, IEP

  • This paper reports findings of a mixed methods study examining private school teachers’ perceptions of efficacy in dealing with the challenges presented by inclusive education in Macao. This is highly pertinent after the Government invited consultation to propose changes to amendments of the Decree Law of 1996 concerning the education of students with Special Education Needs (SEN) which will likely see private schools being required to accept these students in the future. Within the context of teacher preparedness for inclusive education, the study found that a number of teachers felt that they were not at all prepared to teach students with SEN. Whilst some teachers suggested that they lacked skills and knowledge in teaching in inclusive classrooms, some felt overwhelmed with the challenges. The teachers proposed that they would need to know how to provide instructional adaptations and modifications to support students with SEN. Implications for continuous development of teacher training and education are discussed within the context of improving teacher efficacy and how private school teachers could better respond to the challenges of inclusive education in Macao.

  • In an inclusive education system, educators engage with increasing their understanding of individual differences, especially in regard to learning, and develop and adjust learning and assessment tasks and contexts in ways that make them accessible and appropriate for all students regardless of starting ability levels, interests, learning strengths and weaknesses. In inclusive schools, diverse approaches to learning are valued and all learners are challenged and supported to be successful in their learning goals. Macao has begun the journey to develop an increasingly inclusive education system. This book has been written as the journey is beggining and explores some of the different perspectives twoard inclusion and interpretaions of "inclusive education" within Macao's education systems and the wider community at this time. The main aims of the research presented in this book are to understand the different views and roles of staff in Macao schools and in the wider community. The book raises questions about how inclusion in Macao might unfold and identifies areas where efforts may be needed to progress inclusive education.

  • In Macao, the government has initiated a debate regarding revisions in the Decree Law in order to promote a more inclusive schooling system. In this Special Administrative Region of China, inclusive education is one of three possible types of special education that are likely be legislated in the future. The way the teachers perceive the different aspects related to inclusive education, namely the principles, concepts and law, is essential for its full implementation. The aim of this study is to understand teachers’ perceptions about the proposed amendments in the consultation document for changes in the special education regime. In particular, we focus on teachers’ acceptance of the recommended role of parents, the proposed placement models and expectations for teacher training. A mixed-methods approach with a survey of a sample of 500 teachers in private schools and interviews to a sub-sample of 20 provide the data. While agreeing in principle with the majority of the proposed changes in the Decree Law, there were several reservations made by the teachers, especially regarding the extent of parental choice, placement decisions and teacher training. Recommendations to continue the pathway for a more inclusive education system in Macao and for further research are made.

  • This paper adopts a political economy perspective in understanding how the country context frames the development of higher education doctoral science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs. We argue that a country’s commitment to research and development spending as a strategy to maintain its economic competitiveness creates the market for research labor. This embeddedness of STEM doctoral training programs in the country’s science and technology system enlarges differences between STEM and non-STEM doctoral programs. This argument is validated from a survey of doctoral students in leading Pacific Asian universities which shows that STEM doctoral programs have stronger research networks, are better financed, use better facilities, and incorporate a variety of research placements. The embeddedness of STEM programs is further illustrated from the case of Singapore. Singapore-based STEM doctoral students mention enjoying better financial support and receiving better career advice from their supervisors. They depend on collaborative peer learning and cite more varied employment options when asked about their career plans.

Last update from database: 12/7/21, 3:13 PM (UTC)