Results 4 resources
Lei, W. C. (2013, July 28). Endogenous fragmented technology and optimal offshoring in large civil aircraft production. The 9th Annual Conference of the Asia-Pacific Economic Association, Osaka, Japan. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/369091812_Endogenous_fragmented_technology_and_optimal_offshoring_in_large_civil_aircraft_production
This paper is motivated by two observations in the large civil aircraft (LCA) industry. (1) Boeing and Airbus are significantly different in the degree of offshoring. (2) The degree of offshoring also changes among different aircraft models. To offer an explanation, this paper focuses on issues related to fragmentation. Existing literature has established the tie between fragmented technology and offshoring. However, it is assumed that production can be fragmented readily and at no cost; and only exogenous global economic factors have impact on the degree of fragmentation. This model distinguishes itself from others by incorporating endogeneity in fragmentation. A final-good firm can spend on R&D specifically for its own fragmented technology. As a result, the final-good firm can optimally choose the portion of components to be offshored. A strategic trade policy model is used to show that the degree of offshoring depends on the firm's own cost of production, the host country's cost of production, the global state of technology as well as the government trade policies. In particular, export subsidy and subsidy on R&D of fragmented technology are shown to be policy substitutes. Keywords: Fragmentation; Offshoring; Outsourcing; Aircraft; Export subsidy; R&D subsidy; Boeing; Airbus JEL classification: F12; F13; F23; L13
Ivorra, L., Cruzeiro, C., Ramos, A., Tagulao, K., & Cardoso, P. G. (2022). How can environmental conditions influence dicofol genotoxicity on the edible Asiatic clam, Meretrix meretrix? Environmental Pollution, 293, 118467. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118467
Genotoxic effects of dicofol on the edible clam Meretrix meretrix were investigated through a mesocosm experiment. Individuals of M. meretrix, were exposed to environmental concentration (D1 = 50 ng/L) and supra-environmental concentration (D2 = 500 ng/L) of dicofol for 15 days, followed by the same depuration period. DNA damage (i.e., strand breaks and alkali-labile sites) was evaluated at day 1, 7 and 15, during uptake and depuration, using Comet assay (alkaline version) and nuclear abnormalities (NAs) as genotoxicity biomarkers. The protective effects of dicofol against DNA damage induced by ex vivo hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure were also assessed. Comet assay results revealed no significant DNA damages under dicofol exposure, indicating 1) apparent lack of genotoxicity of dicofol to the tested conditions and/or 2) resistance of the animals due to optimal adaptation to stress conditions. Moreover, ex vivo H2O2 exposure showed an increase in the DNA damage in all the treatments without significant differences between them. However, considering only the DNA damage induced by H2O2 during uptake phase, D1 animals had significantly lower DNA damage than those from other treatments, revealing higher protection against a second stressor. NAs data showed a decrease in the % of cells with polymorphic, kidney shape, notched or lobbed nucleus, along the experiment. The combination of these results supports the idea that the clams used in the experiment were probably collected from a stressful environment (in this case Pearl River Delta region) which could have triggered some degree of adaptation to those environmental conditions, explaining the lack of DNA damages and highlighting the importance of organisms’ origin and the conditions that they were exposed during their lives.
Ivorra, L., Cardoso, P. G., Chan, S. K., Cruzeiro, C., & Tagulao, K. (2023). Quantification of insecticides in commercial seafood sold in East Asian markets: risk assessment for consumers. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 30(12), 34585–34597. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-24413-7
The extraction of 21 insecticides and 5 metabolites was performed using an optimized and validated QuEChERS protocol that was further used for the quantification (GC–MS/MS) in several seafood matrices (crustaceans, bivalves, and fish-mudskippers). Seven species, acquired from Hong Kong and Macao wet markets (a region so far poorly monitored), were selected based on their commercial importance in the Indo-Pacific region, market abundance, and affordable price. Among them, mussels from Hong Kong, together with mudskippers from Macao, presented the highest insecticide concentrations (median values of 30.33 and 23.90 ng/g WW, respectively). Residual levels of fenobucarb, DDTs, HCHs, and heptachlors were above the established threshold (10 ng/g WW) for human consumption according to the European and Chinese legislations: for example, in fish-mudskippers, DDTs, fenobucarb, and heptachlors (5-, 20- and tenfold, respectively), and in bivalves, HCHs (fourfold) had higher levels than the threshold. Risk assessment revealed potential human health effects (e.g., neurotoxicity), especially through fish and bivalve consumption (non-carcinogenic risk; ΣHQLT > 1), and a potential concern of lifetime cancer risk development through the consumption of fish, bivalves, and crustaceans collected from these markets (carcinogenic risk; ΣTCR > 10–4). Since these results indicate polluted regions, where the seafood is collected/produced, a strict monitoring framework should be implemented in those areas to improve food quality and safety of seafood products.
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