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  • This thesis reports a mixed methods empirical research which included a university-wide survey and action research in form of a quasi-experiment in collaborative blended learning (CBL) with Macau undergraduate students. The intervention embodied the principles of social constructivism and investigated the putative benefits and challenges of CBL. The purpose of the study was to identify how to promote effective CBL in undergraduate students and to increase effective learning, motivation, autonomy, empowerment, and communication. It found that only small improvements to students’ CBL took place over time, and found that the students needed specific instruction, practice and development in how to collaborate, both with and without online learning. Despite being in a world-leading, enriched digital environment, the students were new to collaboration and online learning. Students discovered and appreciated the benefits and challenges to collaboration and CBL largely by doing it. The thesis shows that CBL does not release teachers from their instructional and pedagogical roles; rather they place teachers at the heart of effective practice and improvements. The study underpins the need for explicit training of students in CBL. It identifies several strategies and tools which can be useful to promote effective genuine CBL

  • This doctoral dissertation focuses on teacher education in the context of experienced tertiary English language teachers in mainland China. It investigates the changes in teachers’ beliefs and attitudes, and in their classroom practice, that result from an external inservice education and training (INSET) course. It follows up subsequent change in teachers’ classroom practice, and in their beliefs and attitudes, in their teaching contexts one year after the INSET course. This dissertation presents a review of the literature in the field of second language teacher education, shifts in research paradigms in the field, and the characterisation of inservice teacher professional development. The nature of teachers’ beliefs and attitudes, and of teachers’ classroom practice, are synthesised from the literature, and are related to research on stages of innovations. Models of change (from beliefs and attitudes to classroom practice, as well as alternative pathways) are discussed, and a conceptualisation of the processes of teacher change in the context of innovations for experienced inservice teachers is proposed. The research presents a case study of one group of teachers attending an INSET course, and uses qualitative data collection, analysis and interpretation. Findings are discussed which provide insight and guidance for INSET provision in the context of experienced teachers, and which add to the research in the field of teacher education in the context of China. The findings suggest that in the complexity of INSET among individual teachers any one model of the process of teacher change may not be applicable, but rather that multiple possible models of change exist for each teacher—in beliefs and attitudes, and in classroom practice—and for each innovation. It is likely that each individual teacher experiences different change models for different innovations during the same INSET course. The significance and implications of the findings are discussed in relation to INSET provision, teacher change, and theories of teacher education and development, as well as the limits of the study, and future research areas suggested

  • In the past three decades there have being an increase in the number of Bilateral Trade Agreements (BTAs) globally. These agreements involve huge human and financial movements and are essentially based on trade and investment. This phenomenon has brought new dimension to global business environment by changing the landscape in whichfirms from emerging markets operate in another emerging market. In the light of this, this dissertation is to examine how bilateral trade agreementsprovisions influence choice of foreign market entry mode of resource seeking Chinese Multinational Enterprises operating in Nigeria. This study adopts a qualitative design, collecting data using semi-structured interviews. The data are analyzed with content analysis and explanation building to identify themes through application of replication logic. The data obtained from the interviews regarding the research questions are presented and discussed as major findings and adoptedfor the creation of the new model for the study of resources seeking firm’s choice of market entry modes in emerging markets The model developed in this dissertation makes a contribution to theory for the study of market entry modes of MNEs from developing countries entering another developing country. In this case, Chinese resources seeking multinational firms entering Nigeria. Elements of Dunning’s OLI theory, Resources Dependency Theory, and Institution theory extended for the purpose for the theory development process. This investigation also provides important information to assist state policy actors in their development of bilateral trade agreements between China and Nigeria. Implications for firms and their involvement in developing countries and with framework where bilateral trade agreements exist are also provided

  • This dissertation reports on a study which aims to add to the theoretical understanding of how social capital is transferred from one generation to the next in business families. Studies in the field of family business have emphasized the importance of succession for the survival of family businesses, but while the succession process and planning have been widely studied, the examination of social capital succession is scarce. As for the studies in family business’s social capital, the importance of social capital as a source of competitive advantage which already exists in business families have often been expressed, but there is a lack of research in the means of transferring this form of capital from the family business leaders to their successors. The study presented here addresses this gap in family business succession literature and social capital literature, explaining the means of transgenerational succession of social capital in family businesses. This is a qualitative research using the multiple case study method which aims to investigate the means of social capital transmission by comparing the cases of five different Chinese family businesses in Macau, which are in the succession process, with the successor currently managing the firm while the former generation business leaders are in the process of handing over the business and preparing for retirement. In doing so, this research offers a theoretical framework of explaining how social capital is transmitted from the incumbents to the successors throughout a five-stage succession process developed for this research. The forms of social capital that exists in family businesses are identified from previous literature, in order to clearly explain how these different forms of social capital are passed on from generation to generation based on the review on succession process introduced in published literature. A theoretical iii framework is formed from the two parent theories on family business succession and social capital, and is then verified empirically from five Chinese family businesses in Macau. The cases are developed through in-depth interviews with the incumbents and successors of the family businesses, informal interviews with stakeholders (including family members, business associates, non-family employees and customers), direct observation on the premises of the Chinese family businesses and secondary data, in order to study the process of intergenerational transmission of social capital in these Chinese family businesses

  • Chapter 1 provides an overview of the study. Scholarly interest in film discourse (Bateman and Schmidt, 2011; Tseng, 2009) have led to the development of semiotic resources as dependable model to anchor current film research. The application of semiotic multimodality to investigate “how film means” and unlock its “textual organization” through a specific film adaptation case study will be the main focus of the research. Chapter 2 reviews relevant literature in the domain of adaptation and multimodal studies. In particular, semiotic multimodal theories which inform the present study of Ackbar Abbas’ theory of déjà disparu in the context of Hong Kong New Cinema in general, and the cinema of Wong Kar-wai in particular are introduced. Chapter 3 outlines the research design. The theoretical framework underpinning the study include Metz’s grande paradigmatique, Barthes’ semiotic, and above all, Bateman’s multimodality principles of analytic units such as filmic units, syntagmatic and paradigmatic axes are set out. Chapter 4 analyses Liu Yichang’s modernist novella, Intersection (1972). Drawing upon adaptation theories, the chapter examines Wong’s radical re-working of Liu’s experimental fiction to produce an “abstract adaptation” that not only challenges issues of adaptation fidelity but opens “new theoretical dialogue” about the intersection of film and literature, with particular emphasis on “the formalism of tête–bêche (theory) into a social-historical critique” in his film adaptation of In the Mood for Love. Chapter 5 examines the filmmaker – Wong Kar-wai. In the 2012 Sight and Sound poll, critics and film-makers voted In the Mood for Love the 24th Greatest-Film-of-All-Time. Commercial and critical acclaimed aside, the film about unrequited love, the transmutation of time and memory, carries a “historical significance” in post-colonial Hong Kong. Abbas theorizes a culture of déjà disparu to covey film-makers, like Wong, who adopts cinematic techniques of “disappearance and ambivalence” to capture a global city, i.e. Hong Kong, that is imminently disappearing. Chapter 6 analyses In the Mood for Love in a stratified semiotic model. It explores the basic units of film, or the syntagmatic configurations of filmic units, through fine-grained, shot-by-shot analysis of the case study. The chapter employs extensive corpus of data coupled with rigorous annotation of filmic units and detailed analysis of paradigmatic systems. Chapter 7 applies the analytic framework for a closer analysis of In the Mood for Love by combining syntagmatic and paradigmatic organization that covers the entire target film fragment. Incidentally, Bateman and Schmidt’s seminal research, the results published in 2012, analysed D. W. Griffith’s The Girl and her Trust (1912), a silent film, 15 minute long, consisted of only 140 shots. Despite the level of complexity involved, the present study seeks to examine if a semiotic multimodal framework, specifically through the interaction of the two axes – syntagmatic and paradigmatic – could lead to fresh insights of “textual organization”, filmic meaning making and, consequently, filmic discourse. Chapter 8 and 9 summarizes the key findings, discusses its implications and its contribution to multimodal research. Limitations of the present study and directions for further research are proposed. Chapter 10 provides generalizations concerning In the Mood for Love, Wong’s film adaptation from Liu Yichang’s modernist novella, Intersection; as well addresses the research questions raised in the study. To summarize, the study builts on Bateman and Schmidt’s (2011) and Tseng’s (2009) research on film as a form of “cinematographic document,” and continues their efforts to construct a semiotic mode of film. The author recognizes the complexity of undertaking research in the domain of semiotic discourse. This study argues that as film analysis is about ways of seeing and synthesizing different cinematic styles, strategies; learnt cinematic conventions and reflective viewing is imperative. The interaction of robust multimodal resources, well-defined analytic units, based on dependable models, and conducted through a discursive process should align to produce fruitful filmic discourse. The study premised on the assumption that film is more than a “self-enclosed signification system” but a crucial “cultural practice” that “reflect and inflect culture.” Taken together, this view underscores the importance and interactivity of cinema, culture and society. To this end, the study contributes to filmic meaning making, the New Hong Kong Cinema, and finally, the present study invariably serves as a form of “social document” or “cultural artifacts” in its exploration of Hong Kong ever changing identity, culture and moods

  • Hong Kong and Macau were politically reunified with Mainland China in 1997 and 1999, respectively. These two cities culturally originated from Mainland China, but due to their own colonial experiences, the Chinese cultural identities within Hong Kong, Macau, and Mainland China became different. The nature of Chinese cultural identities within Hong Kong and Macau were hybridized, and they have formed their own Chinese cultural identities with their own peculiarities. The Internet is a popular communication medium and it facilitates cultural communication inside and outside of these three places. The high-speed development of modern technology leads to the variety of services that emerge in the Internet, such as discussion forum, Blog, Facebook, Twitter, etc. These new and open spaces serve as a platform for ordinary people to express themselves in different ways. General observations in the Internet reveal that the discussion on Chinese cultural identity among Hong Kong, Macau, and Mainland China exists. The combination of self-identity and reconstruction of self-cultural identity are happening in these differently colonized places. Some local Chinese people in Macau, and Taiwanese in Taiwan, share this kind of experience as well. Meanings in different issues via different symbols are formed and they can be seen from the photos that circulate in the Internet using threads posted in Blogs or discussion forums. All these kinds of images or contexts become symbols of recognizable identities. Internet use, therefore, has facilitated the cultural communication between Hong Kong, Macau, Mainland China, and Taiwan. It has also intensified the enlightenment of Chinese cultural identity, showing and highlighting in effect the remnants of recognizable traits in these territories that were once colonized by different states. In essence, they may arguably have formed heterogeneous Chinese cultural identities. This study presents the uniqueness of the formation of Macau identity in comparison to Hong Kong, and how different it was from Hong Kong after the end of the colonial period. This ‘awakening process’, it is argued, provides a new perspective for understanding the attendant connotations and evaluations of cultural identities, and the different perspectives used to understand how the Internet is reshaping the social world. The reconstruction of cultural identity is a global issue and cultural hybridity is an essential element for reconstruction of self-cultural identity in the postcolonial period. This study employs postcolonial theory, along with observation, in-depth interview and online data collection and content analysis that were adapted during the course of the research, in order to discuss this phenomenon

  • Nowadays, many university students (in Macau) are required to attend computer literacy courses to develop their basic skill levels and knowledge as part of their literacy foundation requirements. To be effective, such courses, which are very staff intensive and require access to expensive equipment and software, necessitate high levels of individual teaching. Evidence gathered at two study sites during this research, strongly suggests that many students may not be benefiting sufficiently from their computer literacy courses. Teachers frequently complain about the weak IT skills of many course graduates. This research proposes an innovative model for designing and delivering computer literacy courses based on constructivist principles, using peer-tutoring and blended learning to increase cost effectiveness and to improve student outcomes. Central to the model being proposed is the training and deployment of former course graduates as peer instructors and assessors. Constructivist principles provide a conceptual framework to ensure that the curriculum content, teaching strategies, learning styles and assessment procedures are properly aligned and fully understood by both the instructors and students to achieve high quality learning outcomes. An action research approach was used during the pilot and trail phases of the research to monitor the implementation of the model and evaluate its effectiveness using mixed methods. The planned two–phase action evaluation used a questionnaire to investigate the effectiveness of knowledge and skill transfer to students, and tutors’ learning progress; in-depth semi-structured interviews were used to survey, interpret and evaluate students’ and tutors’ perceptions of the new teaching and learning approach. Most respondents had a Confucian Heritage Cultural Background. For the first time, the research provides new insights into ways in which Confucian Heritage Cultural factors, interact with constructive principles in developing peer-tutoring methods in a university setting inMacau, and more widely

  • The territory of Macao is composed of several granitic intrusions belonging to one of the biggest granite provinces in the world, the Southeast China Magmatic Belt (SCMB), located in the southeast (SE) area of the Cathaysia Block. The SCMB is known by the occurrence of large volumes of Mesozoic magmatic rocks (over 90% are granitic rocks and equivalent volcanic rocks with minor basalts), occupying a total outcrop area of nearly 200.000 km2. The geology of Macao (~30 Km2) is dominated by granitic rocks displaying a wide range of textural, mineralogical and chemical features, making it an ideal region to study these rocks and the petrogenetic processes responsible for their diversity. This study employed a wide range of research methodologies, namely field studies, petrography, zircon geochronology, mineral chemistry, whole-rock elemental and isotopic geochemistry to determine the nature of the source, the petrogenetic processes and the tectonic regimes of the Mesozoic magmatism in this region. Thus, the data collected along this study aims to provide new knowledge on the tectono-magmatic evolution of Macao, in particular, and of SE China, in general. The results obtained from the high-precision U–Pb zircon geochronology, acquired through isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) and in-situ laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICPMS), revealed different ages for Macao granites. Despite its relatively small area, the determined ages tightly constrain the Macao granitic magmatism to two periods, ranging from 164.5 ± 0.6 to 162.9 ± 0.7 Ma (MGI – Macao Group I granites) and 156.6 ± 0.2 to 155.5 ± 0.8 Ma (MGII – Macao Group II granites). In addition, younger dacitic rocks were dated at 150.6 ± 0.6 Ma and <120 Ma. The existence of two proximal but distinct granitic pulses, spanning for a time of about 9 Ma and separated by ca. 6 Ma, in the Macao granitic suite suggests that it was incrementally assembled. This hypothesis is also extendable to the neighbouring Hong Kong region, where the magmatic activity occurred in four major pulses spanning for about 24 Ma. However, the MGII granites indicate the occurrence, on the Pearl River Delta region, of a magmatic pulse between those defined in Hong Kong at the origin of Lamma Suite (165–160 Ma) and the Kwai Chung Suite (148–146 Ma). In addition, Rare Element Earth (REE) ratios suggest that this pulse may only occur in Macao area, while MGI granites show evolving trends of REE ratios similar to those of Jurassic granites outcropping in vast areas of the Cathaysia Block (SE China). Inheritance patterns in the zircon U–Pb data indicate the presence of a population of antecrysts (165–180 Ma) crystallized from earlier magmatic pulses and a population of inherited zircons, from Precambrian to Phanerozoic sources, incorporated into the magmas during melting and/or ascent/emplacement at crustal levels. The oldest inherited ages (2.4 Ga and possibly 2.9 Ga) suggest contribution of Proterozoic and possibly of late Archaean crustal sources for the Macao magmatism. The granitic rocks of Macao are mainly high-K calc-alkaline metaluminous to weakly peraluminous I-type granites with variable degrees of fractionation. Fractional crystallization played an important role in the evolution of these granites, though the fractionation paths differ for the highly fractionated facies of both groups mainly due to distinct accessory fractionating phases. Such difference is evident by distinct REE evolution trends: while MGI magmas seem to have evolved by gradual enrichment in heavy REE relatively to light REE, originating progressively flatter REE patterns, magmas from MGII are marked by depletion of middle REE, leading to progressively concave upward REE patterns. However, while most of the geochemical variation of the MGII granites can be explained by fractional crystallization, the same is not true for MGI granites. The MGI highly fractionated granites show evidence for the REE tetrad effect and are characterized by non-CHArge-and-RAdius-Controlled (non-CHARAC) behaviour of trace elements, suggesting late-stage melt/fluid interactions involving F-rich fluids. The stage of evolution represented by the MGI highly fractionated granites corresponds to the onset of fluid/melt interaction in a highly evolved granitic system, which may have led to enhanced hydrothermal activity in more evolved stages, as those represented in neighbouring areas in SE China. Significant differences in isotopic composition were also observed, with the MGII being characterized by a much narrow range of initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios and εNd(t) and εHf(t) values than MGI. Based on these differences, the MGII granites are considered to be part of a comagmatic suite that has evolved in closed system, contrasting with what can be inferred for MGI. The increase in initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios with degree of evolution, the presence of metasedimentary enclaves and the high percentage of inherited zircon with Paleozoic ages in MGI, suggest the occurrence of an assimilation fractionation crystallization (AFC) process. The AFC processes were a major cause for the I-S transitional characteristics of the MGI highly fractionated granites and possibly of the other similar Jurassic biotite granites in SE China. The observed decoupling of Sr, Nd and Hf isotope systems might have resulted from magma mixing between the granitic and more mafic magmas, which caused the homogenization of Sr isotope ratios but not of the Nd and Hf ones. Such process is also supported by the occurrence of Microgranular Mafic Enclaves (MME) hosted by the granites. Isotope and major element compositions together with model ages strongly suggest that Macao granitic magmas were generated by partial melting of infracrustal medium-to-high K basaltic Paleo-Proterozoic to Mesoproterozoic protoliths heated by, and mixed to some degree with mantle-derived magmas. The temporal and spatial association of Macao and SE China Jurassic I-type granites with basaltic/gabbroic rocks, syenites and A-type granites, displaying typical intraplate chemical features, indicates an extensional regime rather than an active margin for the origin of these rocks. It also points to an important role of mantle-derived magmas in the production of SE China Jurassic granites. Adiabatic decompression melting of the asthenospheric mantle produced mafic magmas, which underplated at the base of the crust (Moho), subsequently triggering partial melting of the lower crust to generate the granitic magmas. The Jurassic Macao granites are interpreted as being produced in an intraplate extensional setting related to the break-off and foundering of a previously flat-slab (Paleo-Pacific plate) beneath the Eurasian plate. The boundary between east and west Cathaysia blocks is roughly along the Zhenghe-Dapu Fault (ZDF), which intersects the SE China coast near Hong Kong and is thought to have played a major role for the Mesozoic magmatic activity in this region. The stronger isotopic affinities of Macao granites with the other granitic rocks and lower crustal xenoliths from the western Cathaysia Block suggest that the ZDF is likely to pass south of Macao, a fact that has not been mentioned before. In addition to the Early Yanshanian (Jurassic) granitic magmatism in Macao, the younger ages obtained for the dacite dykes indicate that the territory was also affected, to a lesser degree, by Late Yanshanian (Cretaceous) magmatism. The transition from granitic to dacitic magmatism most likely corresponds to a change in the regional tectonic regime, which induced a significant change in the magma genesis processes. In contrast with the intraplate features of Macao and SE China Jurassic granites and coeval mafic rocks, the geochemical features of the Macao dacite dykes (e.g. high LILE/HFSE ratios and negative anomalies of Nb, Ta and Ti) are identical to those characterizing arc-like subduction-related magmas. These dacites are most likely evolved products of arc-like magmatism and may testify the reestablishment of a normal subduction system in this area of SE China. Keywords: I-type granites; U–Pb zircon geochronology; Yanshanian Orogeny; Macao (SE China); Cathaysia Block.

  • Macao, a developing city, has been undergoing rapid and significant changes economically, culturally, and socially, partly as a consequence of the changes to the economy brought about by the gaming and tourism industry. Changes in Macao have had a major impact on its schools. Parents have a significant impact on students in school, and Macao’s secondary schools are having to handle a range of challenges and problems brought by students and their parents, many of these as a result of the changes in the wider society of Macao. The response of many schools to the challenges faced is limited, and they understate and under-use the important role played by more developed forms of parental involvement in schools. This study examines the nature, scope and extent of the problems that secondary schools in Macao are having to handle from parents and students, how the schools are handling them, and what needs to be done in order to address the problems and handle them more effectively. Through a large scale survey, interviews and a small scale questionnaire, the thesis identifies key problems facing the schools from students and parents, and it reveals that many of Macao’s secondary schools are ill-equipped to handle these, and there are many signs that the problems are becoming more acute. The thesis finds that negative parental behavior has had a stronger effect on students than positive parental behavior, and it finds that there are several reasons why the schools, in their present state, cannot address these matters effectively. A significant gap is found between what the schools indicate they should be doing and what they are actually doing to address increased parental involvement in order to impact positively on Macao’s students. Recommendations are made for intervention and action

  • We live in an era in which critique of the West has become a deep-rooted phenomenon of the lives of non-Europeans. This paper contributes to the study of European women perception of South East Asia as mirrored in travel writing accounts and, independently but syncronic, of the Chinese women poets who wrote during a period a few decades before and after the mid nineteenth century. I shall be analysing the Western concept of femininity and domesticity in relation to and symultaneously attempting to reformulate Edward Said’s concept of Orientalism. Central to my research method is the fact that I am trying to add to to a traditional Western-oriented gender issues approach - baded on a review of the mid- nineteenth women travel writers - a reversed view, that being the representation of the Orient emerging from the vision of Chinese women literature. My research not only focuses on the literariness of travel writing, which has been widely neglected, but also on a vision of the Orient that is represented by some Chinese women writers in the nineteenth century –Gan Lirou 甘立媃 (1743-1819) and Lü Bicheng 呂碧城 (1883 – 1943). My research is not a survey study of Chinese literature, and it does not claim to be exhaustive. Instead, I attempt to systematize the problem of Western representations of the Orient by taking Ana d’Almeida’s diary, A Lady’s Visit to Manilla and Japan, as central reference and source of conceptual classification. From there, I am trying to further some gender issues drawn from Ana d'Almeida's text and identify symetric instances of those representations, if present, in Chinese literary texts written roughly in the same historical period. Expending Edward Said’s Orientalism, this paper tries to challenge the classic univocal Orient-Occident approach and to mirror Western Orientalist and pseudo- Orientalist ideas into contemporary Chinese writings. This is also meant to be an introduction to this cross-cultural comparative approach of feminity and domesticity open for further contributions in gender studies as well as in fields bordering social history, history of literature, literary theory and cultural anthropology

  • Religion and migration are both phenomena that have endured perennially in the experience of humanity. However, studies on the relationship of these two subjects are not as prevalent compared to how widespread international migration has become especially among people coming from religious societies. This work contributes to the knowledge base on the significance of religion within the context of international migration by looking at how religious faith and practice evolve as a result of the experience of migration. Interviews about the migration narratives of Filipino Catholics working in Macau were conducted. These were supported by data collected through the use of survey questionnaires that look into changes in religious practices of respondents as well as their attitudes towards faith and belief. The study has found that there is constancy in the religious faith and practice of Filipino Catholics even amidst external changes to the physical and social environment brought about by moving to a predominantly secular society. Through recourse to anthropological analysis, this immutability of faith is attributable to the unique ethnographic feature of Filipinos’ high regard for the centrality and importance of interiority in their life. Keywords: migration, immigrant religion, faith, Filipino religiosity

  • Macau is a dynamic city with a unique blend of Eastern and Western cultures, which has become a well-known travel destination. Macau is not only home to the casinos, but also a shopping paradise, where we can find international luxury brands and local designer brands. The local fashion industry has a strong follower base, taking a different route than that of the Textile and Garment Industry in the 1980s. Nowadays, the local Fashion Industry is not only focused on production, but more on the design and creativity. Macau is a city rooted in the casino industry, having shifted from an industrial economy into a service-based one. This study aims to assess the relations between Asia and Europe with regard to their impact on the creative process of local fashion designers, to understand how local designers balance between market, creativity and aesthetics. Also, it is important to understand how Macau government supports local brands such as: “Made in Macau”. In order to accomplish our goal, several academic areas will be addressed, such as fashion design and the cultural and creative industries in their broad sense, (aesthetics, history, creativity, identity, economy, ergonomics, cognition, and social value). A mix of quantitative and qualitative methods have been used, including questionnaires, open-ended interviews, case-study research, ethnographic methods, historical research and visual methodologies. In the following chapters, this studies will describe mainly the Macau fashion industry in a globalized era and the multiculturalism’s influence on the local fashion designer’s collections

  • Several internationalization theories have been developed over the past few decades that have made great contributions in explaining enterprise internationalization and their mode of entry strategy. It has been suggested that the determinants of entry mode choice of enterprises from emerging and frontier markets differ from those of comparable enterprises from advanced economies. Literature review appears to indicate that there is a need to expand the framework for entry mode strategies to accommodate the expansion issues enterprises from emerging and frontier countries face in the global marketplace. Nevertheless, not much information and acceptable conclusion has been made on how MNEs from frontier markets internationalize and what factors influence their choice of entry into those markets. This study investigated the internationalization strategies of Lusophone Africa MNEs from Angola and Mozambique, more specifically their entry mode. Information was gathered through a survey of 29 MNE’s upper management respondents and subsequent face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 24 of them in their countries. The results of this study suggest that most MNEs opted for equity-based investment strategies, mainly joint venture and M&E as their preferred mode of entry when internationalizing. A significant group of them opted for e- commerce/e-business strategies, and direct and indirect exports. A smaller portion of the interviewees chose Greenfield investment as a mode of entry. Many of these MNEs could be classified as born global/INV. Finally, this study presents a conceptual framework for use in studying the entry mode choice of enterprises from Lusophone Africa frontier markets and presents research propositions for better understanding the determinants of entry mode strategies of enterprise from Angola and Mozambique. Keywords: Internationalization, Entry Mode, Emerging Markets, Frontier Markets, Lusophone African MNEs, Angola, Mozambique

  • Inquiry-based Teaching and Learning is fundamental to modern western Science Education. This thesis argues that improving Science Education within a traditional Chinese educational setting can be realized by introducing Inquirybased Learning as a cross-cultural educational innovation - through the agency of a Science Learning Centre (SLC). The thesis evaluates the impact and uptake of the Inquiry-based approach, as seen through SLC activities that foster the professional development of Science teachers, and that build awareness of the approach at the community level. It also examines the process of establishing a SLC, and regional network, in Macau. The conceptual and substantive factors affecting the cross-cultural transfer of an Inquiry-based Teaching and Learning approach and the development of the SLC are explored through the theoretical lenses of Complexity Theory, Innovation and Change Theory; Social Networking Theory; and a range of Curriculum Development Theories. Central to the thesis is the analysis of three Episodes involving Inquiry-based training programmes facilitated by the SLC, and one Account of the development of the SLC itself: a series of Geoscience Inquiry-based learning workshops in Macau and Hong Kong; an invitational international professional development Training Programme provided in York by the National Science Learning Centre in England; an innovative Master’s in Education degree module which involved learning in an unfamiliar context; and finally, the creation of the Macau Science Learning Centre network as an agency for promoting Science Education in Macau. Furthermore, the thesis analyzes the multi-dimensional roles of the writer as participant, co-teacher, co-facilitator, researcher, ethnographer, theorist, and SLC manager. It incorporates aspects of educational innovation and change, teacher professional training, and the development of collaborative social networks. The research makes a unique contribution to the field of Science Education, especially in terms of the transfer and adaptability of an Inquiry-based approach into a traditionally Chinese educational setting through the agency of a SLC

  • Two billion users make Facebook of academic interest. This thesis creates a Facebook Divide Index, the delineated categories of Facebook Native, Facebook Immigrant, and Facebook Isolate, and develops Facebook inequality concepts. Macau has a fast- growing number of Facebook Immigrants who benefit from using the online social network. Data from participation-observation and surveys demonstrate social capital gain by Facebook Immigrants, with older generation Facebook users relatively happier than their younger counterparts. The thesis concludes that society needs to equip and empower the older generation or Facebook Isolates, so that they can benefit from online social network usage

  • This thesis aims to explore how learning accounting for non-accounting major students could be enhanced through a comprehensive framework connecting individual attributes and learning approaches. While accounting is considered an important and mandatory discipline for business students, it is also considered a difficult subject which deters students’ engagement in the subject. Although the issue has been widely recognized, there are relatively less discussions on possible remedies. Learning accounting is a dynamic process that go beyond the traditional one-to-many learning and teaching settings, all factors revolving the students’ learning environment and process, altogether determine and affect the learning efficiencies. A meta-analysis was first performed to understand the standings of accounting education and to identify gaps within existing literatures in the field of management, accounting, tourism and general education researches. A documentary review on the curricula of all Macau HEI programs involving compulsory accounting courses was also conducted to understand the role and significance of accounting courses for non-accounting college students in Macau. Based on the literature review, this study borrows constructs from theory of planned behavior (TPB) models in its research framework. It attempts to provide a comprehensive framework to understand how students learn accounting efficiently by delving into individual learning styles of the students and their perceived helpfulness and self-efficacy, in respective to different learning techniques. Due to its exploratory nature, a mixed method of qualitative and quantitative methodology is adopted, where both focus group discussions and in-depth interviews are performed with non-accounting students to elicit understandings on student’s difficulties in learning accounting and their preferences for different learning styles. Then, a full-scale quantitative survey is conducted in a Macau higher education institute to assess the learning efficiencies of accounting in different situations. A triangulation with feedback from faculties and administrators are also elicited to provide alternate dimensions on the issues. With no surprise, there is no one best 3 teaching style or method for all students, this thesis contributes to accounting education research by provide a comprehensive diagnosis on the all-round learning stimulus and hindrance in learning accounting. At the end, recommendations are provided for accounting educators to emphasize on the uniqueness of students and to encourage a more dynamic and open environment for learning. Limitations of the studies are also discussed

Last update from database: 1/17/22, 10:13 PM (UTC)