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  • This thesis explores language teaching and language acquisition by multilingual learners using a Variation Theory approach and multilingual teaching in a university setting in Macao, China. It includes three case studies applied to students of the Spanish language in the introductory level which took place from late August to early December of the year 2017. The first study describes Macao’s multilingual language learners in the University of Macao in 2017. Based on the LEAP-Q questionnaire, a questionnaire was created to inquire all Spanish language students about their languages´ background, their motivations to learn new languages, as well as their learning strategies. The second study shows how the usage of Variation Theory techniques and multilingual teaching techniques boosted the teaching and the learning during the semester. This study employs a case study methodology, by analysing in-class multiple interactions gathering information on how multilinguals´ language background affects the pedagogical process. It analyses a total of 28 classes of 1 hour and 15 minutes. The third study presents the analysis of a questionnaire to 82 students of the initial level of Spanish language in the University of Macao, along with the analysis of interviews from 10 selected multilingual students about their linguistic background and how they experienced the semester. These interviews collected more information about the effectiveness of the Variation Theory in the semester in terms of in-class teaching and learning. From the triangulation of these three studies, some conclusions have been drawn about the advantages of using Variation Theory and multilingual teaching techniques for multilingual students, for the language teacher and ultimately also into the curricular design of foreign language teaching. In sum, that the linguistic background of students plays a major role in how they acquire a new language and, that applying Variation Theory techniques can be an immensely effective technique in a language classroom setting; suggesting that multilingual students will gain from being previously identified and placed in a separate class where these variation techniques were applied. Since this thesis focuses solely on an introductory language course, there is ground to explore this same approach on more advanced multilingual language learners

  • This research paper analyses the marketing efforts and important attributes of Macau tea restaurants that have been open for more than 20 years, especially the digital methods that tea restaurants have used to sustain their business and meet customers' needs in the era of digital transition after the onset of the 2019 Covid 19 pandemic year. Using online marketing channels nowadays become an important tool for communicating with customers today. Despite the old Tea Restaurants in Macau did not put much efforts on digital channels for communication yet, to find out how tea restaurants survive in the rival restaurant industry in Macau, qualitative and quantitative methods were used to see how they meet the needs of their customers. For the quantitative method, an online survey questionnaire in bilingual English and Traditional Chinese was conducted with 280 respondents on customer purchase habits, importance of restaurants’ attributes and social media insights on tea restaurants, and the data was analysis by SPSS for the relationship and significance. For the qualitative method, 7 interviews were conducted with the business owners of the old tea restaurants which that have been opened for more than 20 years, including marketing efforts and their attitudes towards digitalization. To find out the marketing strategy of Macau’s old tea restaurants in the digital transformation era, it was found that “place” and “product” are the most important marketing mix for customers. Tea restaurant owners focus on product quality, and generate “word-of-mouth” which is customer-generated marketing, and is an effective way to influence customers for local tea restaurants. Meanwhile business owners will consider digitalize in the near future as well to match the new young customers’ online habits and the need for “place” such as online delivery platform

  • This dissertation examines consumers' perceptions of food influencer content on Instagram and the relationship between exposure to food influencer reviews and consumers' intention to visit restaurants in Macau. A mixed-method research design was employed, combining quantitative survey data from 301 responses with qualitative insights from one focus group session involving six participants. The findings suggest that consumers find food influencer content entertaining and inspiring for dining out and exploring new culinary experiences, but they express concerns over its credibility. While food influencer content has a good exposure to consumers, it has a moderate impact on consumers’ restaurant choices, with various factors affecting the relationship. The results highlight the importance of perceived trustworthiness and enjoyability of food influencer content, the visual appeal of food and restaurant environments in photos, and personal relationships in shaping Macau consumers' visit intention to restaurants. The findings can serve as a basis for future research on credibility perceptions of food influencers, the enjoyability of influencer content, and the visual appeal of food and restaurant environments on Instagram. Practically, food influencers should prioritize transparency, authenticity, appealing photos, engaging captions, and leverage the role of personal relationships to increase their impact on consumers' restaurant choices

  • Food waste has become an increasingly pressing issue worldwide, and Macau is no exception. A substantial portion of municipal solid waste in Macau is comprised of organic waste, with household food waste being a significant contributor. This can be attributed to households purchasing excessive food, preparing more than necessary, or not consuming items before they spoil, leading to detrimental resource and environmental impacts, particularly in the form of greenhouse gas emissions. It is crucial for Macau to develop a sustainable food waste management system that fosters prevention and responsible consumption and to develop food waste recycling habits among its residents. This study employed a two-pronged approach: a literature review of food waste source separation policies and practices in four neighboring regions to identify adaptable good practice examples for Macau, and a questionnaire survey completed by 143 local residents. The survey aimed to comprehend residents' behaviors and awareness regarding food waste prevention and treatment, evaluate their satisfaction with Macau's existing food waste recycling program, examine their resistance and motivation toward participating in the recycling program, and assess their attitudes toward implementing a polluter-pays-principle system in Macau. The survey aimed to provide insights into the current state of household food waste in Macau and inform future waste management policies and strategies of stakeholders. The survey findings highlight the need for enhanced public awareness and education on food waste prevention. Additionally, upgrading recycling facilities may encourage residents to participate more actively in food waste recycling. Ultimately, implementing suitable policies can help prevent food loss and waste and regulate food waste generation and elevate recycling rates. This study offers preliminary recommendations for policymakers or government entities as a orientation for future planning

  • The world we live in today is constantly changing, with new technologies and innovations being introduced all the time. Through the continuation and innovation of Chinese medicine theories, scientific research methods, and progress, Traditional Chinese Medicine continues to evolve and develop more innovative Modern Chinese Medicine. In this research, Molecular Chinese Medicine is studied as a new form of Chinese medicine, intended to provide a more pleasant and safe experience for consumers. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify both positive and negative perceptions that contribute to the adoption of innovative technologies and their related products. In order to reach this goal, a robust value-based theoretical model is used. To examine behavioural intentions to adopt Molecular Chinese Medicine (MCM) in Macau, this study combines quantitative and qualitative methods. Thus, a Value-based Acceptance Model (VAM) was used to determine Macau citizens' attitudes towards Molecular Chinese Medicine, including their perceptions of its usefulness, enjoyment, technicality, and perceived fee, in relation to the perceived value of the product, which may ultimately determine adoption intentions. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to process a sample of 194 Macau residents. The data analysis supported our model's explanatory and predictive power and helped describe the characteristics of the local population. Our results provide insight into the acceptance of innovative products that may be useful in designing more accurate strategies and facilitating the introduction of MCM to Macau and similar markets. It was found that low perceived fees demonstrated a relatively strong positive correlation with potential users' perceived value, whereas usefulness and enjoyment showed a medium-strong positive correlation. Also, a strong positive correlation was found between potential consumers' perception of the value of Molecular Chinese Medicine and their intention to adopt it

  • Human emotions can be meticulously associated with decision-making, and emotion can generate behaviours. Due to the fact that it could be bias and exhaustively complex to examine how human beings make choices, important groups of study in finance are stock traders and non-traders. The objective of this work is to analyze the connection between emotions and the decision-making process of investors and non-investors to understand how emotional arousal might dictate the process of deciding policy. As facial expressions are fleeting, neuroscience tools such as AFFDEX (Real-Time Facial Expression Analysis), Eye-Tracking, and GSR (galvanic skin response) were adopted to facilitate the experiment and its accompanying analysis process. Thirty-seven participants attended the study, ranging from 18 to 72 years old; the distribution of investors and non-investors was twenty-four and thirteen, respectively. The experiment initially disclosed a thought-provoking result between the two groups under the certainty and risk-seeking prospect theory; there were more risk-takers among non-investors at 75%, while investors were inclined toward certainty at 79.17%. The implication could be that the non-investing individuals were less complex in thought and therefore pursued higher returns besides a high probability of losing the game. In addition, the automatic emotion classification system indicates that when non-investors confronted a stock trending chart beyond their acquaintance or knowledge, they were psychologically exposed to fear, anger, sadness, and surprise. Investors, on the contrary, were detected with disgust, joy, contempt, engagement, sadness, and surprise, where sadness and surprise overlapped in both parties. Under time pressure conditions, 54.05% of investors or non-investors tend to make decisions after the peak(s) of emotional arousal. Variations were found in the deciding points of the slopes: 2.70% were decided right after the peak(s), 37.84% waited until the emotions turned stable, and 13.51% were determined as the emotional indicators started to slide downwards. Several combinations of emotional responses were associated with decisions. For example, negative emotions could induce passive decision-making, in this case, to sell the stock; nevertheless, it was also examined that as the slope slipped downwards to a particular horizontal point, the individuals became more optimistic and selected the "BUY" option. The support of physiological monitoring tools makes it possible to capture the individuals' responses and discover the science of decision-making. Future works may consider expanding the study to more significant demographic populations for further discoveries

  • "In 2021/2022 academic year, there are 2,244 SEN students in Macau and its growth rate is 36% in ten years. However, at the present, there are 38 schools providing the related education to them. Admittedly, this is an unbalanced supply and demand. In fact, the teachers who work at inclusive education schools are bearing all responsibility to teach SEN students and their mental health is worth to attention. Moreover, there are 1,224 SEN students in primary (2021/2022 academic year), it accounting for 55% of all. That is, the numbers of their teachers are the most and they are representative. Therefore, exploring primary teachers’ burnout at inclusive education schools becomes the topic of this study, even more important, it is including to compare normal and resource teachers. This topic is rarer currently in Macau. On the one hand, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and (reduced) personal accomplishment are dimensions of burnout (Maslach et al., 1996). These become the dependent variables of this study. According Ecological Systems Theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) and the factors of self-efficacy in inclusive education (Sharma et al., 2012), the following hypotheses are provided to guide this study: (1) normal teachers’ emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment are higher than those in resource teachers; (2) teachers’ attitudes into inclusive education, (3) teachers’ self-efficacy to use inclusive instruction (SEII), (4) teachers’ self-efficacy in collaboration (SEC) and (5) teachers’ self-efficacy in v managing behavior (SEMB) both are negatively related to emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment; (6) teachers’ stress of Covid19 is positively related to emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. On the other hand, quantitative methodology, and snowball sampling are used in this research. At last, 132 responds are collected, including 100 normal teachers and 32 resource teachers. They are from 48 inclusive education schools in Macau. All data were analyzed by SPSS 25.0. The results of this study are followed: (1) teachers’ emotional exhaustion level is middle, their depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment levels both are low; (2) resource teachers’ emotional exhaustion and depersonalization are higher than normal teachers; (3) teachers’ attitudes into inclusive education negatively related to depersonalization but positively related to reduced personal accomplishment; (4) in the factors of self-efficacy, only SEII is negatively related to reduced personal accomplishment; (5) teachers’ stress of Covid-19 is positively related to emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment."

  • This study examined the relationships between organizational justice, job satisfaction, and subjective well-being of medical doctors and nurses in Macao. It applied a quantitative methodology through a cross-sectional applying self-response questionnaires to 149 healthcare workers. Consistent with the group-engagement model (Tyler & Blader, 2003), findings indicate that organisational justice and job satisfaction improve subjective well-being. Yet, inconsistent with the model and our hypotheses, organizational justice did not affect work satisfaction. Finally, nurses experienced less positive justice perceptions than doctors. The study provides insights into the relationship between organizational justice, job satisfaction, and subjective well-being among healthcare professionals, which might help enhance working conditions. Healthcare organizations should prioritize promoting job satisfaction and justice perceptions to increase healthcare personnel's subjective well-being. The cross-sectional design limits causal inferences about variable relationships, and the self-reported data may have social desirability or response biases. Still, the originality and value of this paper lie in its contribution to the literature on the well-being of healthcare workers, particularly in the unique context of Macao. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Macao to examine the relationship between organizational justice, job satisfaction, and subjective well-being among healthcare workers

  • The aim of this research is to investigate how power distance orientation effects the relationship between perceptions of organisational politics and perceptions of organisational justice. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted on 172 full time workers in Macau, where respondents self-responded to questionnaires that were translated back-to-back into Chinese in order to accommodate the populations native language. This study found that power distance was contrary to our initial hypothesis of high-power distance equals to high politics and low justice. It was found that high power distance in facts equates to lower political perceptions and higher justice perceptions. This study contributes to understanding power distance in Macau as it is not noted in the Hofstede cultural dimensions. We also learned that having a longer distance between a position of power can contribute to less political activity and more sense of justice for the employees

  • There are gaps in the research on gender differences and parental participation and the interaction between gender and parental participation in non-Western cultural contexts, particularly the Macao context. The current study aims to fill these gaps by examining gender and parental participation (i.e., father only, mother only, or both) differences and interactions in externalizing behaviour (oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder) during late childhood and adolescence (i.e., from age 10 to 18) in Macao. The methodological approach for the current study was a cross-sectional design with a quantitative methodology based on self-rated questionnaires. In certain items, we did discover gender differences. More boys than girls appeared to concur that they occasionally misbehave at school or start fires. And it appeared that girls were more likely than boys to concur that they occasionally exhibit unexpected mood or emotion changes and strong tempers. The children in the groups where only the mother or father participated tended to agree more than they prefer to hang out with older kids than kids their own age. This is in contrast to the group with more parental participation, which is represented by both parents submitting the questionnaire. Although none of the hypotheses proposed were supported, our outcomes implied culture and subculture may play important roles on youths’ externalizing behaviour

  • Government service mini-programs have become an integral component of eGovernment in the Greater Bay Area, and successful eGovernment is necessary for building a smart city. Service quality and citizens' trust play a vital role in urban integration and in-depth cooperation in the Bay Area. The ubiquitous nature of mini-programs based on WeChat and Alipay provides excellent flexibility in accessing government services. Technology advantages, mutual recognition of cross-border data, and online transactions bring value and benefits to citizens. However, the mechanism of mini-program adoption has not been elaborated. Homogenization, conflict of regulations, and policy effectiveness are issues of great concern. This study employed Self-Determination Theory and Motivation Theory, proposed an empirical model based on the extended SOR paradigm, and aimed to identify the critical factors determining the intention of government service mini-program adoption from the user’s perspective. Six hundred and nine valid samples were collected from Macau, Hong Kong, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen through online survey platforms. The findings suggested that service quality, trust in eGovernment, ubiquity, and social influence constituted the determinants of intention to adopt. Service quality and ubiquity were salient determinants, and a great extent of service quality and ubiquity could promote perceived value and intention. Citizens' trust in government service mini-programs was reasonable, where benevolence, integrity, and competence were crucial indicators of trust. Social influence amplified and transmitted risk perception while perceived risk significantly reduced intention. Perceived value positively associated with the four determinants and enhanced user intention; it acted as a mediator with high explanatory power in the model. Government support received positive ratings from citizens; it negatively regulated the relationship between intention and the determinants respectively, implying that excessive intervention from the government could lead to inhibition. Finally, we proposed relevant implications and suggestions for the GBA government agents and policymakers

  • Teaching methods are not enough in today's social environment. By studying the understanding and practice of innovative education by primary school teachers in Macao, we can find a direction to promoting educators' demand for educational innovation. This research aims to understand the attitudes of primary school teachers in Macao toward innovative education, as well as the feasibility and necessity of developing a creative curriculum, through in-depth interviews with the experiences and reactions of primary school teachers in Macao. Simultaneously, encourage primary school teachers in Macao to implement effective and innovative educational methods so that Macao society can rethink the importance of educational innovation. The significance of the research lies in improving teachers' awareness of educational innovation and promoting teachers' understanding of education. In education, innovation includes new teaching theories, methods, techniques, and resources. Therefore, the education innovation is to think about things creatively, and innovation is to do creative things. By interviewing eleven local primary school teachers in Macau, we learned their views on innovative education teaching methods. Although, a limitation of the study is that only a few faculty members were selected, which may not represent the entire primary teacher in Macau. The study draws four main conclusions, the first of which is the view of primary teacher in local education, it can know that Macao primary school teachers understanding and cognition of educational innovation. Though of understanding of Macau’s primary teacher’s attitude in innovation teaching, which can find the feasibility of innovation teaching in Macau. At the same time, understanding of the impact factor in Macau innovation education, it clarifies the main challenging of primary teacher practice innovation teaching in Macau. On the other hand, thought of understanding of teacher’s attitude, we can more understanding the real situation in Macau’s educational innovation and encourage the teacher promoted educational innovation in Macau

  • Employees in the hospitality industry, in particular, face difficult conditions such as overwork, job security, understaffing, and work-life imbalance in today's fast-paced society. Because of that, employees in the hospitality industry experience high levels of occupational stress. Severe conditions of occupational stress may not only lead to health issues for the employee but also affect their work performance. In order to get a better grasp of how occupational stress affects the employees in the hospitality industry in Macau, the research questions are: 1) What are the sources of stress in the Macau hospitality industry? 2) How does the COVID-19 pandemic change the perception of occupational stress among employees in the Macau hospitality industry? How do the companies help the employees in the Macau hospitality industry cope with occupational stress? have been formulated. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eleven participants working in the hospitality industry, with a median age of 39 years and a median range of 13 years. Based on these interviews, participants expressed their perceptions of occupational stress under the categories of distress and eustress, while coding schemes were applied to all semi-structured interviews. The results on distress showed that reactions from employees and their working conditions, in particular, were the two most important determinants of occupational stress, while motivation helped people grow and develop their confidence. For the changes in occupational stress due to the pandemic, mental reactions from employees were the most significant determinant of occupational stress in the Macau hospitality industry during the changes brought about by the pandemic in these years, closely followed by employee job insecurity. In order to cope with occupational stress, employees should take responsibility for coping with their stress, but employers also have a role to play in this process, like providing good communications and proactive assistance to the employees. Finally, employees' responses were described as more negative as a result of their experience. Further research could focus on more methods for employees to cope with occupational stress in both physical and mental ways

  • The inundation problem in Macao is getting more attention recently, especially after the destructive impacts of typhoons Hato (2017) and Mangkut (2019). The inundation caused by storm surges is getting more severe with the rapid sea-level rise in Macao. Moreover, the potential threat of a tsunami in Macao, may be enhanced with rising sea-level. This research evaluated the risk of coastal hazards in Macao by analyzing the local meteorological data. The results of the analysis indicate a rising trend in the tropical cyclone intensity and more severe storm surges are expected to occur in the future. Moreover, this research explores the potential of Nature-based Solutions (NbS), particularly mangroves, to address the inundation problem in Macao. The study included a preliminary laboratory-based experiment and the application of local mangroves data in numerical models. The results of the experiment and numerical models demonstrate the ability of mangroves to attenuate waves. These findings, although preliminary, indicate that mangroves could be a promising NbS to address inundation issues in Macao. To effectively implement this NbS, further field investigations are needed to measure attenuation in-situ, as well as determine optimal locations for mangrove restoration projects

  • Climate change is a global issue but its impact can be felt locally. Macau SAR has been rapidly developing since the single shift towards a gaming industry-dominated economy, the overwhelming anthropogenic activities contributing to increasing pollution. Mangroves, which play an essential role as the blue carbon system with a high carbon sequestration rate could be a natural base solution to the pollution. This study aims to determine 1) the total organic Carbon (TOC) in the soil of Macau mangrove sites, 2) comparison with the methodology evaluating the organic Carbon, and 3) organic Carbon comparison between Macau and other regions. Soil sampling were processed under the Blue Carbon Initiative guideline, and the samples were divided into two parts for determining the TOC%, combustion method from Hong Kong, and methodology of ashing in our laboratory. The overall estimated TOC% of Macau mangrove sites was 1.29%. There are still a lot of potentials in Carbon storage and for climate change mitigation in Macau

  • This paper analyses the valuation of McDonald's Corporation (MCD) as of December 31, 2021. An estimate of the Company's intrinsic value will also be provided. In addition, the internal company factors and external market conditions influencing company valuations and share prices will be discussed. The study has two main objectives: Determine the intrinsic value of McDonald's common stock as of December 31, 2021, and compare it to the actual stock market price on the same date. An assessment of the stock’s market price should represent the Company's true value on that day. Research can then verify whether it was overvalued or undervalued on that day. Identify internal company factors and external market environment factors that affect the Company's operations. This information will be used to gain a deeper understanding of the sensitivity analysis results. Possible scenarios will be discussed to reflect how these factors stimulate macroeconomic, industry, and business developments, as well as the strategic responses of industry players or competitors. McDonald's possible strategic responses to these scenarios will also be assessed. In this paper, a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods will be employed. Data collection and analyses in Chapters 2 to 5 will use a qualitative approach, which includes data related to McDonald's, industry, and economic analyses. Chapters 5 to 8 will apply qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. Data will be collected from McDonald's annual report for the fiscal year from December 2017 to December 2021

Last update from database: 7/24/24, 2:01 PM (UTC)


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