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  • Monitoring signals such as fetal heart rate (FHR) are important indicators of fetal well-being. Computer-assisted analysis of FHR patterns has been successfully used as a decision support tool. However, the absence of a gold standard for the building blocks decision-making in the systems design process impairs the development of new solutions. Here we propose a prognostic model based on advanced signal processing techniques and machine learning algorithms for the fetal state assessment within a comprehensive evaluation process. Feature-engineering-based and time-series-based machine learning classifiers were modeled into three data segmentation schemas for CTU-UHB, HUFA, and DB-TRIUM datasets and the generalization performance was assessed by a two-way cross-dataset evaluation. It has been shown that the feature-based algorithms outperformed the time-series ones on data-limited scenarios. The Support Vector Machines (SVM) obtained the best results on the datasets individually: specificity (85.6% ) and sensitivity (67.5%). On the other hand, the most effective generalization results were achieved by the Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) with a specificity of 71.6% and sensitivity of 61.7%. The overall process provided a combination of techniques and methods that increased the final prognostic model performance, achieving relevant results and requiring a smaller amount of data when compared to the state-of-the-art fetal status assessment solutions.

  • The adoption of IoT for smart health applications is a relevant tool for distributed and intelligent automatic diagnostic systems. This work proposes the development of an integrated solution to monitor maternal and fetal signals for high-risk pregnancies based on IoT sensors, feature extraction based on data analytics, and an intelligent diagnostic aid system based on a 1-D convolutional neural network (CNN) classifier. The fetal heart rate and a group of maternal clinical indicators, such as the uterine tonus activity, blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, and oxygen saturation are monitored. Multiple data sources generate a significant amount of data in different formats and rates. An emergency diagnostic subsystem is proposed based on a fog computing layer and the best accuracy was 92.59% for both maternal and fetal emergency. A smart health analytics system is proposed for multiple feature extraction and the calculation of linear and nonlinear measures. Finally, a classification technique is proposed as a prediction system for maternal, fetal, and simultaneous health status classification, considering six possible outputs. Different classifiers are evaluated and a proposed CNN presented the best results, with the F1-score ranging from 0.74 to 0.91. The results are validated based on the diagnosis provided by two specialists. The results show that the proposed system is a viable solution for maternal and fetal ambulatory monitoring based on IoT.

  • The adoption of computer-aided diagnosis and treatment systems based on different types of artificial neural networks (ANNs) is already a reality in several hospital and ambulatory premises. This chapter aims to present a discussion focused on the challenges and trends of adopting these computerized systems, highlighting solutions based on different types and approaches of ANN, more specifically, feed-forward, recurrent, and deep convolutional architectures. One section is focused on the application of AI/ANN solutions to support cardiology in different applications, such as the classification of the heart structure and functional behavior based on echocardiography images; the automatic analysis of the heart electric activity based on ECG signals; and the diagnosis support of angiogram images during surgical interventions. Finally, a case study is presented based on the application of a deep learning convolutional network together with a recent technique called transfer learning to detect brain tumors using an MRI images data set. According to the findings, the model has a high degree of specificity (precision of 0.93 and recall of 0.94 for images with no brain tumor) and can be used as a screening tool for images that do not contain a brain tumor. The f1-score for images with brain tumor was 0.93. The results achieved are very promising and the proposed solution may be considered to be used as a computer-aided diagnosis tool based on deep learning convolutional neural networks. Future works will consider other techniques and compare them with the one presented here. With the comprehensive approach and overview of multiple applications, it is valid to conclude that computer-aided diagnosis and treatment systems are important tools to be considered today and will be an essential part of the trend of personalized medicine over the coming years.

  • Objective: This study highlights the potential of an Electrocardiogram (ECG) as a powerful tool for early diagnosis of COVID-19 in critically ill patients with limited access to CT–Scan rooms. Methods: In this investigation, 3 categories of patient status were considered: Low, Moderate, and Severe. For each patient, 2 different body positions have been used to collect 2 ECG signals. Then, from each collected signal, 10 non-linear features (Energy, Approximate Entropy, Logarithmic Entropy, Shannon Entropy, Hurst Exponent, Lyapunov Exponent, Higuchi Fractal Dimension, Katz Fractal Dimension, Correlation Dimension and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis) were extracted every 1s ECG time-series length to serve as entries for 19 Machine learning classifiers within a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. Four different classification scenarios were tested: Low vs. Moderate, Low vs. Severe, Moderate vs. Severe and one Multi-class comparison (All vs. All). Results: The classification report results were: (1) Low vs. Moderate - 100% of Accuracy and 100% of F1–Score; (2) Low vs. Severe - Accuracy of 91.67% and an F1–Score of 94.92%; (3) Moderate vs. Severe - Accuracy of 94.12% and an F1–Score of 96.43%; and (4) All vs All - 78.57% of Accuracy and 84.75% of F1–Score. Conclusion: The results indicate that the applied methodology could be considered a good tool for distinguishing COVID-19’s different severity stages using ECG signals. Significance: The findings highlight the potential of ECG as a fast and effective tool for COVID-19 examination. In comparison to previous studies using the same database, this study shows a 7.57% improvement in diagnostic accuracy for the All vs All comparison.

Last update from database: 7/22/24, 10:05 AM (UTC)

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