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  • This study covers the limited research on how experiences with nature can foster Chinese students’ pro-environmental identity and behavior. The relevant literature outlines five areas – identity, human behavior, experiences, nature and transformation – in understanding how the Chinese culture of ‘face’ (lain/mian) shapes Chinese students’ identity and behavior today and why experience with nature can help to transform Chinese students’ values, beliefs and norms, and shapes someone who manifests an environmentally sensitive behavior. Past research studies environmental behavior in various dimensions, including the correlation between environmental knowledge and positive environmental attitudes and behavior. Yet surveys of how students’ experience with nature fosters a pro-environmental identity and behavior, especially amongst Chinese students, are rare. The qualitative case study in this thesis seeks to find out whether senior students in the Design Department of IPM’s School of Arts who experienced nature in Southern Thailand show a stronger pro-environmental identity and behavior compared to those not in the experiential learning program. A survey which includes the Environmental Identity Survey (Clayton, 2003) and the Environmentally Responsible Behaviors Index (Smith-Sebasto & D’Acosta, 1995) was administered to all senior students, and an in-depth interview with students who had experience with nature in Southern Thailand was conducted. The findings suggest that a rainforest experience not merely fosters pro-environmental identity and behavior, but student all rounded development especially as a step towards internationalization. The findings also indicate to what extent the programmatic factors of the experience were important in changing Chinese students’ values, beliefs and norms in thinking and behaving environmentally, as well as in student personal development. Keywords: nature, experiential learning, pro-environmental identity, pro-environmental behavior

  • Esta dissertação reporta uma investigação realizada com o objectivo de se compreender a persistente dificuldade de integração sentida no patamar transnacional de um projeto educacional europeu Comenius, de parceria entre escolas. A Grounded Theory foi a metodologia selecionada para orientar a recolha e análise de dados. Os dados empíricos primários foram extraídos de entrevistas abertas, não estruturadas, realizadas aos professores europeus envolvidos nas atividades do projeto. Identificou-se, como principal fator obstrutivo da unidade operacional a esse nível no projeto, a existência de significativas barreiras à comunicação entre os diferentes parceiros europeus, latentes, pouco compreensíveis, mas extraordinariamente operativas. Implicações do estudo e sugestões para esforços subsequentes visando evitar ou, pelo menos, contornar o mesmo tipo de problema, ou problemas similares, estão incluídas

  • Kruger and Dunning (1992) found that unskilled people were typically unaware of their own performance and ability. In this context, unskilled performers were shown to overestimate their performance and ability, whereas skilled performers often accurately predicted their own performance and ability. Such miscalibration in self-assessment is usually attributed to a lack of so-called metacognitive skills necessary for performance evaluation. However, it remains unknown to what extent the miscalibration of performance judgment and optimistic bias is observed in the Chinese culture. This thesis examines patterns of miscalibration of performance judgment and specific optimistic bias. This thesis also builds on a range of previous studies of performance judgment and optimistic bias. In order to investigate the performance judgment and optimistic bias in this context, two studies were conducted as part of the research aspect of this thesis. In the first study, participants were given a reasoning task on which they had to predict their performance before completing the task and estimate their performance upon completion of the task. The second study followed similar methodology, with two additional tasks – Institute For Tourism Studies (IFT) module and the respective midterm examination. Results from both studies indicate that biases in performance judgment occur in the Chinese culture, and may yield negative consequences to those persons who exhibit such judgments. Although metacognitive ability provides some explanation for the miscalibration of performance judgment, the results of the current study indicate that task optimistic bias provides another, equally viable explanation for the miscalibration of performance judgment. The findings presented in this thesis suggest that inaccurate judgments of performance occur within various domains (general and specific iii performance contexts) and that there are a range of implications associated with these biases. Keywords: Miscalibration of performance judgment, optimistic bias, absolute optimistic bias, comparative optimistic bias, overestimation, overplacement, underestimation, underplacement

  • This study focuses on curriculum development for competency-based training of advanced practice nursing and smoking cessation in Macao. The aims of this thesis are: (a) to link the core competencies of Advanced Practice Nursing (APN) to curriculum development; (b) to make recommendations for improved specialist nurse training to address current problems of nursing; and (c) to gather data to indicate the scope and the severity of the issues related to nurse training in Macao. The thesis presents a comprehensive literature review of theoretical frameworks of competency-based nursing curricula, curriculum development and design, quality assurance, best practice in competency based models of nursing education, theories of change and innovation, needs analysis and stakeholder satisfaction. The thesis develops and implements a needs analysis and situational analysis of nursing education in Macao, using a „mixed methods‟ approach that integrates quantitative and qualitative data to identify the needs for, and perception of, core competencies in Community Health APNs by the health professionals and clients of the community. This includes an empirical survey of stakeholders, semi-structured interviews with professionals in the field of nursing and nurse training, structured questionnaires from clients, observational data on training and implementation of competency-based curricula, and evaluation of a piece of curriculum implementation of an APN training program on smoking cessation. Through action research cycles, the thesis synthesizes a range of literature and empirical data, and, from these, gains feedback for improvement and refinement of the new curriculum to be implemented. As well as conducting client satisfaction surveys of the primary health care provision and services in Macau and how these could be improved, the thesis provides the framework for a competency-based curriculum for nursing education in Macau. The thesis argues that, in order to keep abreast with current developments in nurse training and practice worldwide, it is essential for APN education and training to adopt a competency-based approach and for curricula to be framed in terms of competencies and outcomes. It indicates that these are currently under-developed in Macao, and that there is an urgent need for them to be addressed, in terms of general, core and specific competencies (e.g. smoking cessation). The thesis argues that, for such developments to iii happen, fundamental changes will be required to curricula and to APN nursing practice, as, even though there may be changes to curricula, the opportunity to put general and specific competencies into practice by APNs is currently severely restricted because of a range of constraints in Macao. The thesis argues that there is an urgent need for APNs to receive competency-based training and practice for smoking cessation, and the opportunity to put this training into practice. It indicates that even short workshops and training programs can be effective. The thesis argues that current obstacles to such practice can be identified, but that overcoming them presents serious challenges to the current system, and will require action on many fronts, including revisions to local legislation, nurse credentialing, facilitation by senior managers of the health service, and an increase in the supply of nurses. The thesis indicates that there is a strong and united will for changes to be made to bring about competency-based training, curricula and practice in Macao, but that there are many practical barriers to be overcome in order to bring about these changes

  • As societies globalize, mastery of a second or multiple languages has become an important index to enhance interaction in the society. In that English is a is a widely used medium of communication globally for engagement in international business, commerce, science, technology and governance, the benefits of an efficacious English language teaching force to facilitate the English acquisition process of students in classrooms around the world is highly valued. For the purpose of this study, the English language teacher efficacy instrument (ELTEI) was adapted to the local context to measure the professional efficacy of the English as a foreign language (EFL) teacher participants. The objective of the research was to investigate the degree of relationship between antecedent conditions and specific teacher efficacy in Macao. A mixed-method approach in a sequential phase design was adopted to explore the efficacy of English language teachers serving Chinese medium schools in a non-English speaking region in Asia. Phase-one employed a qualitative approach to contextualize the measurement instrument and to ascertain important characteristics of the target population. Phase-two ensured a quantitative approach to yield understanding regarding the influence of key antecedent conditions on the efficacy of English language teachers in Macao. As evidenced through multiple linear regressions and structural equation modeling, openness, neuroticism, and perceived school support were significant predictors for teacher’s self-efficacy in English teaching. Recommendations for the school management to enhance and sustain the efficacy of EFL teachers in Macao were discussed

  • This thesis investigates the Language Learning Strategies (LLS) used by English as a Foreign Language (EFL) nursing students of higher education in Macao and the effectiveness related to students’ learning outcomes by Strategy Instruction (SI). To date there has been no literature in the area of SI among the Macao Chinese EFL higher education students on teaching all LLS groups, and on four main English skills to look at its effects on learning processes and outcomes at the same time, and this study starts to fill the gap. The research uses an embedded mixed methods research design in phase one and an embedded mixed methods quasi-experimental design in phase two. Phase one aimed to identify students’ LLS use. The findings revealed that students’ cognitive, metacognitive and compensatory strategies were used more than affective, memory-related and social strategies, and overall they used a medium to low level of LLS. In phase two, the effects of SI on students’ changes of LLS use, their proficiency and English learning processes were identified. After SI, students used LLS both more widely and frequently in all four main English skills. Most students’ motivation and self-confidence were enhanced. After SI the affective group of strategies in the treatment group statistically significantly improved, with a moderate effect size, from that of the comparison group. It was found that the widely used Strategy Inventory for Language Learning questionnaires by Oxford (1989c) had limited statistical power and some conceptual confusion. Recommendations are made for policy and practice of EFL instruction

  • Macao Creole Portuguese (MacCP) is a critically endangered language spoken in Southeastern China. The formation of MacCP is attributed to the speakers of Portuguese-based creole languages in Asia (Asian CPs), especially Papia Kristang, the Malayo-Portuguese of Malacca (MalCP). Since the 19th century, MacCP has been traditionally classified as Sino-Portuguese, but comparative methods incited some authors to treat MacCP within the Malayo-Portuguese group. In Macao, the Malaccan origin of MacCP, known as Patúa or Maquista, is generally underestimated or misunderstood by the local population, including the Macanese/Maquista community. The main goal of this research is to clarify the origin of MacCP from a typological perspective on grammatical features. Secondly, while considering a possible revitalization of Maquista, the research should assess the significance of the Malayo- and Sino-Portuguese classifications in popular narratives and relate the language to current practices. The grammar of MacCP emerged from the complex linguistic ecology of the Portuguese colonial expansion in Asia. The documentation of Asian CPs allows us to sketch possible scenarios that explain the formation of MacCP according to linguistic, historical and social factors. A digital corpus of MacCP containing archive documents, contemporary literature, and oral transcriptions was assembled in order to produce a systematic review of 130 grammatical features, as defined in the Atlas of Pidgin and Creole Language Structures Online (APiCS Online – Michaelis et al. [eds] 2013). MacCP and MalCP share certain features that are not found in South Asian CPs, such as the in situ position of interrogative words, the reduplication for nominal plural, the form of reciprocal constructions, and the verb serialization of motion constructions, thus pointing to the Malayo-Portuguese origin. At the same time, other features suggest a certain influence from Sinitic languages, mainly Cantonese and Hokkien, such as the convergence between the genitive, adjective and relative clause constructions, the double-object construction, the verb-neg-verb polar question, the copular focus construction, the reduplication inducing a change of word class or semantics, and the use of certain deontic, imperative, and prohibitive verbal markers. The comparative analysis of the grammars of MacCP, MalCP and other Asian CPs can be represented quantitatively by the means of a phylogenetic network (SplitsTree4 – Huson & Bryant 2006). The results clearly indicate that, from a structural perspective, MacCP belongs to the Malayo-Portuguese group and the presence of Sinitic elements did not affect the core of the grammar. In fact, MacCP and MalCP appear to be more similar to each other than to the former Malayo-Portuguese of Batavia. However, the Malayo-Portuguese classification of MacCP does not resonate with the Macanese community. By contrast, the Sino-Portuguese classification translates current linguistic, social and semiotic practices. A socio-semiotic survey among the millennial generation of Macanese and the consideration of themes and motifs in Maquista literature indicates that the revitalization of Maquista simultaneously implies, in their views, the preservation of the Cantonese and Portuguese heritage

  • Inquiry-based Teaching and Learning is fundamental to modern western Science Education. This thesis argues that improving Science Education within a traditional Chinese educational setting can be realized by introducing Inquirybased Learning as a cross-cultural educational innovation - through the agency of a Science Learning Centre (SLC). The thesis evaluates the impact and uptake of the Inquiry-based approach, as seen through SLC activities that foster the professional development of Science teachers, and that build awareness of the approach at the community level. It also examines the process of establishing a SLC, and regional network, in Macau. The conceptual and substantive factors affecting the cross-cultural transfer of an Inquiry-based Teaching and Learning approach and the development of the SLC are explored through the theoretical lenses of Complexity Theory, Innovation and Change Theory; Social Networking Theory; and a range of Curriculum Development Theories. Central to the thesis is the analysis of three Episodes involving Inquiry-based training programmes facilitated by the SLC, and one Account of the development of the SLC itself: a series of Geoscience Inquiry-based learning workshops in Macau and Hong Kong; an invitational international professional development Training Programme provided in York by the National Science Learning Centre in England; an innovative Master’s in Education degree module which involved learning in an unfamiliar context; and finally, the creation of the Macau Science Learning Centre network as an agency for promoting Science Education in Macau. Furthermore, the thesis analyzes the multi-dimensional roles of the writer as participant, co-teacher, co-facilitator, researcher, ethnographer, theorist, and SLC manager. It incorporates aspects of educational innovation and change, teacher professional training, and the development of collaborative social networks. The research makes a unique contribution to the field of Science Education, especially in terms of the transfer and adaptability of an Inquiry-based approach into a traditionally Chinese educational setting through the agency of a SLC

  • Macao, a developing city, has been undergoing rapid and significant changes economically, culturally, and socially, partly as a consequence of the changes to the economy brought about by the gaming and tourism industry. Changes in Macao have had a major impact on its schools. Parents have a significant impact on students in school, and Macao’s secondary schools are having to handle a range of challenges and problems brought by students and their parents, many of these as a result of the changes in the wider society of Macao. The response of many schools to the challenges faced is limited, and they understate and under-use the important role played by more developed forms of parental involvement in schools. This study examines the nature, scope and extent of the problems that secondary schools in Macao are having to handle from parents and students, how the schools are handling them, and what needs to be done in order to address the problems and handle them more effectively. Through a large scale survey, interviews and a small scale questionnaire, the thesis identifies key problems facing the schools from students and parents, and it reveals that many of Macao’s secondary schools are ill-equipped to handle these, and there are many signs that the problems are becoming more acute. The thesis finds that negative parental behavior has had a stronger effect on students than positive parental behavior, and it finds that there are several reasons why the schools, in their present state, cannot address these matters effectively. A significant gap is found between what the schools indicate they should be doing and what they are actually doing to address increased parental involvement in order to impact positively on Macao’s students. Recommendations are made for intervention and action

  • Nowadays, many university students (in Macau) are required to attend computer literacy courses to develop their basic skill levels and knowledge as part of their literacy foundation requirements. To be effective, such courses, which are very staff intensive and require access to expensive equipment and software, necessitate high levels of individual teaching. Evidence gathered at two study sites during this research, strongly suggests that many students may not be benefiting sufficiently from their computer literacy courses. Teachers frequently complain about the weak IT skills of many course graduates. This research proposes an innovative model for designing and delivering computer literacy courses based on constructivist principles, using peer-tutoring and blended learning to increase cost effectiveness and to improve student outcomes. Central to the model being proposed is the training and deployment of former course graduates as peer instructors and assessors. Constructivist principles provide a conceptual framework to ensure that the curriculum content, teaching strategies, learning styles and assessment procedures are properly aligned and fully understood by both the instructors and students to achieve high quality learning outcomes. An action research approach was used during the pilot and trail phases of the research to monitor the implementation of the model and evaluate its effectiveness using mixed methods. The planned two–phase action evaluation used a questionnaire to investigate the effectiveness of knowledge and skill transfer to students, and tutors’ learning progress; in-depth semi-structured interviews were used to survey, interpret and evaluate students’ and tutors’ perceptions of the new teaching and learning approach. Most respondents had a Confucian Heritage Cultural Background. For the first time, the research provides new insights into ways in which Confucian Heritage Cultural factors, interact with constructive principles in developing peer-tutoring methods in a university setting inMacau, and more widely

  • This doctoral dissertation focuses on teacher education in the context of experienced tertiary English language teachers in mainland China. It investigates the changes in teachers’ beliefs and attitudes, and in their classroom practice, that result from an external inservice education and training (INSET) course. It follows up subsequent change in teachers’ classroom practice, and in their beliefs and attitudes, in their teaching contexts one year after the INSET course. This dissertation presents a review of the literature in the field of second language teacher education, shifts in research paradigms in the field, and the characterisation of inservice teacher professional development. The nature of teachers’ beliefs and attitudes, and of teachers’ classroom practice, are synthesised from the literature, and are related to research on stages of innovations. Models of change (from beliefs and attitudes to classroom practice, as well as alternative pathways) are discussed, and a conceptualisation of the processes of teacher change in the context of innovations for experienced inservice teachers is proposed. The research presents a case study of one group of teachers attending an INSET course, and uses qualitative data collection, analysis and interpretation. Findings are discussed which provide insight and guidance for INSET provision in the context of experienced teachers, and which add to the research in the field of teacher education in the context of China. The findings suggest that in the complexity of INSET among individual teachers any one model of the process of teacher change may not be applicable, but rather that multiple possible models of change exist for each teacher—in beliefs and attitudes, and in classroom practice—and for each innovation. It is likely that each individual teacher experiences different change models for different innovations during the same INSET course. The significance and implications of the findings are discussed in relation to INSET provision, teacher change, and theories of teacher education and development, as well as the limits of the study, and future research areas suggested

  • This thesis reports a mixed methods empirical research which included a university-wide survey and action research in form of a quasi-experiment in collaborative blended learning (CBL) with Macau undergraduate students. The intervention embodied the principles of social constructivism and investigated the putative benefits and challenges of CBL. The purpose of the study was to identify how to promote effective CBL in undergraduate students and to increase effective learning, motivation, autonomy, empowerment, and communication. It found that only small improvements to students’ CBL took place over time, and found that the students needed specific instruction, practice and development in how to collaborate, both with and without online learning. Despite being in a world-leading, enriched digital environment, the students were new to collaboration and online learning. Students discovered and appreciated the benefits and challenges to collaboration and CBL largely by doing it. The thesis shows that CBL does not release teachers from their instructional and pedagogical roles; rather they place teachers at the heart of effective practice and improvements. The study underpins the need for explicit training of students in CBL. It identifies several strategies and tools which can be useful to promote effective genuine CBL

Last update from database: 5/28/22, 3:23 AM (UTC)