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USJ Theses and Dissertations

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  • Macao Creole Portuguese (MacCP) is a critically endangered language spoken in Southeastern China. The formation of MacCP is attributed to the speakers of Portuguese-based creole languages in Asia (Asian CPs), especially Papia Kristang, the Malayo-Portuguese of Malacca (MalCP). Since the 19th century, MacCP has been traditionally classified as Sino-Portuguese, but comparative methods incited some authors to treat MacCP within the Malayo-Portuguese group. In Macao, the Malaccan origin of MacCP, known as Patúa or Maquista, is generally underestimated or misunderstood by the local population, including the Macanese/Maquista community. The main goal of this research is to clarify the origin of MacCP from a typological perspective on grammatical features. Secondly, while considering a possible revitalization of Maquista, the research should assess the significance of the Malayo- and Sino-Portuguese classifications in popular narratives and relate the language to current practices. The grammar of MacCP emerged from the complex linguistic ecology of the Portuguese colonial expansion in Asia. The documentation of Asian CPs allows us to sketch possible scenarios that explain the formation of MacCP according to linguistic, historical and social factors. A digital corpus of MacCP containing archive documents, contemporary literature, and oral transcriptions was assembled in order to produce a systematic review of 130 grammatical features, as defined in the Atlas of Pidgin and Creole Language Structures Online (APiCS Online – Michaelis et al. [eds] 2013). MacCP and MalCP share certain features that are not found in South Asian CPs, such as the in situ position of interrogative words, the reduplication for nominal plural, the form of reciprocal constructions, and the verb serialization of motion constructions, thus pointing to the Malayo-Portuguese origin. At the same time, other features suggest a certain influence from Sinitic languages, mainly Cantonese and Hokkien, such as the convergence between the genitive, adjective and relative clause constructions, the double-object construction, the verb-neg-verb polar question, the copular focus construction, the reduplication inducing a change of word class or semantics, and the use of certain deontic, imperative, and prohibitive verbal markers. The comparative analysis of the grammars of MacCP, MalCP and other Asian CPs can be represented quantitatively by the means of a phylogenetic network (SplitsTree4 – Huson & Bryant 2006). The results clearly indicate that, from a structural perspective, MacCP belongs to the Malayo-Portuguese group and the presence of Sinitic elements did not affect the core of the grammar. In fact, MacCP and MalCP appear to be more similar to each other than to the former Malayo-Portuguese of Batavia. However, the Malayo-Portuguese classification of MacCP does not resonate with the Macanese community. By contrast, the Sino-Portuguese classification translates current linguistic, social and semiotic practices. A socio-semiotic survey among the millennial generation of Macanese and the consideration of themes and motifs in Maquista literature indicates that the revitalization of Maquista simultaneously implies, in their views, the preservation of the Cantonese and Portuguese heritage

  • Fishes are highly specialized in extracting ecologically relevant information from their diverse acoustic habitats since early developmental stages. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a valuable and well-stablished vertebrate model for investigating hearing functioning and disorders, development of the inner ear in vertebrates including humans, drug discovery, ecotoxicology assessments and behavioral research. Although the acoustic environment is known to shape the structure and sensitivity of auditory systems, there is no information on the natural soundscape of this species. Zebrafish are typically reared in large-scale artificial housing systems, which acoustic properties and potential effects on hearing remain largely unknown. Even though elevated levels of noise are widely present in most aquatic soundscapes and to an even greater extent in artificial environments, very limited information is known on how this important environmental stressor impacts species’ development and physiology, hearing capabilities and inner ear morphology, and behaviour. Considering that noise pollution is rapidly increasing in aquatic ecosystems, causing detrimental effects on survivability and growth and altering physiology and behaviour of organisms, it is of paramount importance to assess how this stressor affects wildlife, especially in early ontogeny, a critical period for development and establishment of phenotypic traits. For this thesis I aimed to 1) characterize the soundscape of both zebrafish natural habitats and laboratory captive conditions, and discuss possible impact on auditory sensitivity. Sound recordings were conducted in five distinct zebrafish habitats (Southwest India), from quieter stagnant environments with diverse biological/abiotic sounds to louder watercourses characterized by current and moving substrate, while artificial environmental characterization was conducted on three typical zebrafish housing systems. 8 In order to assess the impact of noise exposure on early development, my next goal was to 2) perform a split-brood experiment to test the effects of chronic noise exposure to increasing levels (130 and 150 dB re 1 μPa, continuous white noise) and different temporal regimes (mimicking shipping activity) on larval zebrafish in regards to general development, physiological stress, and behavioural patterns. Finally, the last objective consisted on 3) testing the effects of chronic noise exposure on auditory sensitivity measured based on inner ear saccular microphonics and acoustic-evoked startle responses (prepulse inhibition paradigm) in larval zebrafish, as well as evaluating whether sensitivity changes were paralleled by altered inner ear morphology. Based on bioacoustics methods, my first study found that zebrafish natural soundscape varied between 98 and 126 dB re 1 lPa in sound pressure levels. Sound spectra presented most energy below 3000 Hz and quieter noise windows were found in the noisiest habitats matching the species best hearing range. Contrastingly, recordings from zebrafish housing systems revealed higher sound levels (122–143 dB) and most energy below 1000Hz with more spectral peaks, which might cause significant impact such as auditory masking or even hearing loss. In my second research work, the acoustic treatments did not affect general development or hatching but increased noise levels led to a significant increase in mortality of larval zebrafish. The cardiac rate, yolk sac consumption and cortisol levels increased significantly with increasing noise level at both 3 and 5 dpf (days post fertilization). Variations in noise time presentations (different random noise periods similar to shipping activity) suggested that the presence of longer silent intervals is important to down-regulate physiological stress. Moreover, 5 dpf larvae exposed to 150 dB continuous noise regimes displayed increased dark avoidance in an anxiety-related dark/light preference test and displayed a significant 9 impairment in spontaneous alternation behaviour (SAB) a memory and sensorimotor related behaviour. Finally, in the last thesis goal, I found that noise-exposed specimens displayed significantly lower hair cell number and saccular epithelial area. This change in sensory morphology was paralleled by a significant decrease in inner ear saccular sensitivity at lower frequencies (100 to 200 Hz) in 5 dpf larvae. Sensorimotor hearing assessment revealed a hypersensitisation effect in noise-exposed group that displayed higher startle swimming velocity, but also significant decrease in sensitivity at 200 Hz. Altogether, this thesis provides an important ground for future research on the adaptation of zebrafish auditory system to the natural soundscapes, and highlights the importance of controlling noise conditions in captivity systems. Furthermore, results provide first evidence of noise-induced physiological stress, anxiety-driven behaviours and memory impairment in larval zebrafish larvae, showing that both noise amplitude and timing may negatively impact key physiological and behavioural endpoints in early ontogeny. The thesis also reports new findings on how acoustic stress may impact the structure and function of the inner ear in larval fish, which was followed by decreased sensitivity in sensorimotor responses to acoustic stimuli. My research highlights the importance of investigating how altered soundscapes and associated physiological and behavioural stress may affect important sensitive windows in development and impose new evolutionary challenges under a scenario of global change

  • Inquiry-based Teaching and Learning is fundamental to modern western Science Education. This thesis argues that improving Science Education within a traditional Chinese educational setting can be realized by introducing Inquirybased Learning as a cross-cultural educational innovation - through the agency of a Science Learning Centre (SLC). The thesis evaluates the impact and uptake of the Inquiry-based approach, as seen through SLC activities that foster the professional development of Science teachers, and that build awareness of the approach at the community level. It also examines the process of establishing a SLC, and regional network, in Macau. The conceptual and substantive factors affecting the cross-cultural transfer of an Inquiry-based Teaching and Learning approach and the development of the SLC are explored through the theoretical lenses of Complexity Theory, Innovation and Change Theory; Social Networking Theory; and a range of Curriculum Development Theories. Central to the thesis is the analysis of three Episodes involving Inquiry-based training programmes facilitated by the SLC, and one Account of the development of the SLC itself: a series of Geoscience Inquiry-based learning workshops in Macau and Hong Kong; an invitational international professional development Training Programme provided in York by the National Science Learning Centre in England; an innovative Master’s in Education degree module which involved learning in an unfamiliar context; and finally, the creation of the Macau Science Learning Centre network as an agency for promoting Science Education in Macau. Furthermore, the thesis analyzes the multi-dimensional roles of the writer as participant, co-teacher, co-facilitator, researcher, ethnographer, theorist, and SLC manager. It incorporates aspects of educational innovation and change, teacher professional training, and the development of collaborative social networks. The research makes a unique contribution to the field of Science Education, especially in terms of the transfer and adaptability of an Inquiry-based approach into a traditionally Chinese educational setting through the agency of a SLC

  • Several internationalization theories have been developed over the past few decades that have made great contributions in explaining enterprise internationalization and their mode of entry strategy. It has been suggested that the determinants of entry mode choice of enterprises from emerging and frontier markets differ from those of comparable enterprises from advanced economies. Literature review appears to indicate that there is a need to expand the framework for entry mode strategies to accommodate the expansion issues enterprises from emerging and frontier countries face in the global marketplace. Nevertheless, not much information and acceptable conclusion has been made on how MNEs from frontier markets internationalize and what factors influence their choice of entry into those markets. This study investigated the internationalization strategies of Lusophone Africa MNEs from Angola and Mozambique, more specifically their entry mode. Information was gathered through a survey of 29 MNE’s upper management respondents and subsequent face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 24 of them in their countries. The results of this study suggest that most MNEs opted for equity-based investment strategies, mainly joint venture and M&E as their preferred mode of entry when internationalizing. A significant group of them opted for e- commerce/e-business strategies, and direct and indirect exports. A smaller portion of the interviewees chose Greenfield investment as a mode of entry. Many of these MNEs could be classified as born global/INV. Finally, this study presents a conceptual framework for use in studying the entry mode choice of enterprises from Lusophone Africa frontier markets and presents research propositions for better understanding the determinants of entry mode strategies of enterprise from Angola and Mozambique. Keywords: Internationalization, Entry Mode, Emerging Markets, Frontier Markets, Lusophone African MNEs, Angola, Mozambique

  • Macau is a dynamic city with a unique blend of Eastern and Western cultures, which has become a well-known travel destination. Macau is not only home to the casinos, but also a shopping paradise, where we can find international luxury brands and local designer brands. The local fashion industry has a strong follower base, taking a different route than that of the Textile and Garment Industry in the 1980s. Nowadays, the local Fashion Industry is not only focused on production, but more on the design and creativity. Macau is a city rooted in the casino industry, having shifted from an industrial economy into a service-based one. This study aims to assess the relations between Asia and Europe with regard to their impact on the creative process of local fashion designers, to understand how local designers balance between market, creativity and aesthetics. Also, it is important to understand how Macau government supports local brands such as: “Made in Macau”. In order to accomplish our goal, several academic areas will be addressed, such as fashion design and the cultural and creative industries in their broad sense, (aesthetics, history, creativity, identity, economy, ergonomics, cognition, and social value). A mix of quantitative and qualitative methods have been used, including questionnaires, open-ended interviews, case-study research, ethnographic methods, historical research and visual methodologies. In the following chapters, this studies will describe mainly the Macau fashion industry in a globalized era and the multiculturalism’s influence on the local fashion designer’s collections

  • Religion and migration are both phenomena that have endured perennially in the experience of humanity. However, studies on the relationship of these two subjects are not as prevalent compared to how widespread international migration has become especially among people coming from religious societies. This work contributes to the knowledge base on the significance of religion within the context of international migration by looking at how religious faith and practice evolve as a result of the experience of migration. Interviews about the migration narratives of Filipino Catholics working in Macau were conducted. These were supported by data collected through the use of survey questionnaires that look into changes in religious practices of respondents as well as their attitudes towards faith and belief. The study has found that there is constancy in the religious faith and practice of Filipino Catholics even amidst external changes to the physical and social environment brought about by moving to a predominantly secular society. Through recourse to anthropological analysis, this immutability of faith is attributable to the unique ethnographic feature of Filipinos’ high regard for the centrality and importance of interiority in their life. Keywords: migration, immigrant religion, faith, Filipino religiosity

  • We live in an era in which critique of the West has become a deep-rooted phenomenon of the lives of non-Europeans. This paper contributes to the study of European women perception of South East Asia as mirrored in travel writing accounts and, independently but syncronic, of the Chinese women poets who wrote during a period a few decades before and after the mid nineteenth century. I shall be analysing the Western concept of femininity and domesticity in relation to and symultaneously attempting to reformulate Edward Said’s concept of Orientalism. Central to my research method is the fact that I am trying to add to to a traditional Western-oriented gender issues approach - baded on a review of the mid- nineteenth women travel writers - a reversed view, that being the representation of the Orient emerging from the vision of Chinese women literature. My research not only focuses on the literariness of travel writing, which has been widely neglected, but also on a vision of the Orient that is represented by some Chinese women writers in the nineteenth century –Gan Lirou 甘立媃 (1743-1819) and Lü Bicheng 呂碧城 (1883 – 1943). My research is not a survey study of Chinese literature, and it does not claim to be exhaustive. Instead, I attempt to systematize the problem of Western representations of the Orient by taking Ana d’Almeida’s diary, A Lady’s Visit to Manilla and Japan, as central reference and source of conceptual classification. From there, I am trying to further some gender issues drawn from Ana d'Almeida's text and identify symetric instances of those representations, if present, in Chinese literary texts written roughly in the same historical period. Expending Edward Said’s Orientalism, this paper tries to challenge the classic univocal Orient-Occident approach and to mirror Western Orientalist and pseudo- Orientalist ideas into contemporary Chinese writings. This is also meant to be an introduction to this cross-cultural comparative approach of feminity and domesticity open for further contributions in gender studies as well as in fields bordering social history, history of literature, literary theory and cultural anthropology

  • Macao, a developing city, has been undergoing rapid and significant changes economically, culturally, and socially, partly as a consequence of the changes to the economy brought about by the gaming and tourism industry. Changes in Macao have had a major impact on its schools. Parents have a significant impact on students in school, and Macao’s secondary schools are having to handle a range of challenges and problems brought by students and their parents, many of these as a result of the changes in the wider society of Macao. The response of many schools to the challenges faced is limited, and they understate and under-use the important role played by more developed forms of parental involvement in schools. This study examines the nature, scope and extent of the problems that secondary schools in Macao are having to handle from parents and students, how the schools are handling them, and what needs to be done in order to address the problems and handle them more effectively. Through a large scale survey, interviews and a small scale questionnaire, the thesis identifies key problems facing the schools from students and parents, and it reveals that many of Macao’s secondary schools are ill-equipped to handle these, and there are many signs that the problems are becoming more acute. The thesis finds that negative parental behavior has had a stronger effect on students than positive parental behavior, and it finds that there are several reasons why the schools, in their present state, cannot address these matters effectively. A significant gap is found between what the schools indicate they should be doing and what they are actually doing to address increased parental involvement in order to impact positively on Macao’s students. Recommendations are made for intervention and action

  • The territory of Macao is composed of several granitic intrusions belonging to one of the biggest granite provinces in the world, the Southeast China Magmatic Belt (SCMB), located in the southeast (SE) area of the Cathaysia Block. The SCMB is known by the occurrence of large volumes of Mesozoic magmatic rocks (over 90% are granitic rocks and equivalent volcanic rocks with minor basalts), occupying a total outcrop area of nearly 200.000 km2. The geology of Macao (~30 Km2) is dominated by granitic rocks displaying a wide range of textural, mineralogical and chemical features, making it an ideal region to study these rocks and the petrogenetic processes responsible for their diversity. This study employed a wide range of research methodologies, namely field studies, petrography, zircon geochronology, mineral chemistry, whole-rock elemental and isotopic geochemistry to determine the nature of the source, the petrogenetic processes and the tectonic regimes of the Mesozoic magmatism in this region. Thus, the data collected along this study aims to provide new knowledge on the tectono-magmatic evolution of Macao, in particular, and of SE China, in general. The results obtained from the high-precision U–Pb zircon geochronology, acquired through isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) and in-situ laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICPMS), revealed different ages for Macao granites. Despite its relatively small area, the determined ages tightly constrain the Macao granitic magmatism to two periods, ranging from 164.5 ± 0.6 to 162.9 ± 0.7 Ma (MGI – Macao Group I granites) and 156.6 ± 0.2 to 155.5 ± 0.8 Ma (MGII – Macao Group II granites). In addition, younger dacitic rocks were dated at 150.6 ± 0.6 Ma and <120 Ma. The existence of two proximal but distinct granitic pulses, spanning for a time of about 9 Ma and separated by ca. 6 Ma, in the Macao granitic suite suggests that it was incrementally assembled. This hypothesis is also extendable to the neighbouring Hong Kong region, where the magmatic activity occurred in four major pulses spanning for about 24 Ma. However, the MGII granites indicate the occurrence, on the Pearl River Delta region, of a magmatic pulse between those defined in Hong Kong at the origin of Lamma Suite (165–160 Ma) and the Kwai Chung Suite (148–146 Ma). In addition, Rare Element Earth (REE) ratios suggest that this pulse may only occur in Macao area, while MGI granites show evolving trends of REE ratios similar to those of Jurassic granites outcropping in vast areas of the Cathaysia Block (SE China). Inheritance patterns in the zircon U–Pb data indicate the presence of a population of antecrysts (165–180 Ma) crystallized from earlier magmatic pulses and a population of inherited zircons, from Precambrian to Phanerozoic sources, incorporated into the magmas during melting and/or ascent/emplacement at crustal levels. The oldest inherited ages (2.4 Ga and possibly 2.9 Ga) suggest contribution of Proterozoic and possibly of late Archaean crustal sources for the Macao magmatism. The granitic rocks of Macao are mainly high-K calc-alkaline metaluminous to weakly peraluminous I-type granites with variable degrees of fractionation. Fractional crystallization played an important role in the evolution of these granites, though the fractionation paths differ for the highly fractionated facies of both groups mainly due to distinct accessory fractionating phases. Such difference is evident by distinct REE evolution trends: while MGI magmas seem to have evolved by gradual enrichment in heavy REE relatively to light REE, originating progressively flatter REE patterns, magmas from MGII are marked by depletion of middle REE, leading to progressively concave upward REE patterns. However, while most of the geochemical variation of the MGII granites can be explained by fractional crystallization, the same is not true for MGI granites. The MGI highly fractionated granites show evidence for the REE tetrad effect and are characterized by non-CHArge-and-RAdius-Controlled (non-CHARAC) behaviour of trace elements, suggesting late-stage melt/fluid interactions involving F-rich fluids. The stage of evolution represented by the MGI highly fractionated granites corresponds to the onset of fluid/melt interaction in a highly evolved granitic system, which may have led to enhanced hydrothermal activity in more evolved stages, as those represented in neighbouring areas in SE China. Significant differences in isotopic composition were also observed, with the MGII being characterized by a much narrow range of initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios and εNd(t) and εHf(t) values than MGI. Based on these differences, the MGII granites are considered to be part of a comagmatic suite that has evolved in closed system, contrasting with what can be inferred for MGI. The increase in initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios with degree of evolution, the presence of metasedimentary enclaves and the high percentage of inherited zircon with Paleozoic ages in MGI, suggest the occurrence of an assimilation fractionation crystallization (AFC) process. The AFC processes were a major cause for the I-S transitional characteristics of the MGI highly fractionated granites and possibly of the other similar Jurassic biotite granites in SE China. The observed decoupling of Sr, Nd and Hf isotope systems might have resulted from magma mixing between the granitic and more mafic magmas, which caused the homogenization of Sr isotope ratios but not of the Nd and Hf ones. Such process is also supported by the occurrence of Microgranular Mafic Enclaves (MME) hosted by the granites. Isotope and major element compositions together with model ages strongly suggest that Macao granitic magmas were generated by partial melting of infracrustal medium-to-high K basaltic Paleo-Proterozoic to Mesoproterozoic protoliths heated by, and mixed to some degree with mantle-derived magmas. The temporal and spatial association of Macao and SE China Jurassic I-type granites with basaltic/gabbroic rocks, syenites and A-type granites, displaying typical intraplate chemical features, indicates an extensional regime rather than an active margin for the origin of these rocks. It also points to an important role of mantle-derived magmas in the production of SE China Jurassic granites. Adiabatic decompression melting of the asthenospheric mantle produced mafic magmas, which underplated at the base of the crust (Moho), subsequently triggering partial melting of the lower crust to generate the granitic magmas. The Jurassic Macao granites are interpreted as being produced in an intraplate extensional setting related to the break-off and foundering of a previously flat-slab (Paleo-Pacific plate) beneath the Eurasian plate. The boundary between east and west Cathaysia blocks is roughly along the Zhenghe-Dapu Fault (ZDF), which intersects the SE China coast near Hong Kong and is thought to have played a major role for the Mesozoic magmatic activity in this region. The stronger isotopic affinities of Macao granites with the other granitic rocks and lower crustal xenoliths from the western Cathaysia Block suggest that the ZDF is likely to pass south of Macao, a fact that has not been mentioned before. In addition to the Early Yanshanian (Jurassic) granitic magmatism in Macao, the younger ages obtained for the dacite dykes indicate that the territory was also affected, to a lesser degree, by Late Yanshanian (Cretaceous) magmatism. The transition from granitic to dacitic magmatism most likely corresponds to a change in the regional tectonic regime, which induced a significant change in the magma genesis processes. In contrast with the intraplate features of Macao and SE China Jurassic granites and coeval mafic rocks, the geochemical features of the Macao dacite dykes (e.g. high LILE/HFSE ratios and negative anomalies of Nb, Ta and Ti) are identical to those characterizing arc-like subduction-related magmas. These dacites are most likely evolved products of arc-like magmatism and may testify the reestablishment of a normal subduction system in this area of SE China.

  • Nowadays, many university students (in Macau) are required to attend computer literacy courses to develop their basic skill levels and knowledge as part of their literacy foundation requirements. To be effective, such courses, which are very staff intensive and require access to expensive equipment and software, necessitate high levels of individual teaching. Evidence gathered at two study sites during this research, strongly suggests that many students may not be benefiting sufficiently from their computer literacy courses. Teachers frequently complain about the weak IT skills of many course graduates. This research proposes an innovative model for designing and delivering computer literacy courses based on constructivist principles, using peer-tutoring and blended learning to increase cost effectiveness and to improve student outcomes. Central to the model being proposed is the training and deployment of former course graduates as peer instructors and assessors. Constructivist principles provide a conceptual framework to ensure that the curriculum content, teaching strategies, learning styles and assessment procedures are properly aligned and fully understood by both the instructors and students to achieve high quality learning outcomes. An action research approach was used during the pilot and trail phases of the research to monitor the implementation of the model and evaluate its effectiveness using mixed methods. The planned two–phase action evaluation used a questionnaire to investigate the effectiveness of knowledge and skill transfer to students, and tutors’ learning progress; in-depth semi-structured interviews were used to survey, interpret and evaluate students’ and tutors’ perceptions of the new teaching and learning approach. Most respondents had a Confucian Heritage Cultural Background. For the first time, the research provides new insights into ways in which Confucian Heritage Cultural factors, interact with constructive principles in developing peer-tutoring methods in a university setting inMacau, and more widely

  • Hong Kong and Macau were politically reunified with Mainland China in 1997 and 1999, respectively. These two cities culturally originated from Mainland China, but due to their own colonial experiences, the Chinese cultural identities within Hong Kong, Macau, and Mainland China became different. The nature of Chinese cultural identities within Hong Kong and Macau were hybridized, and they have formed their own Chinese cultural identities with their own peculiarities. The Internet is a popular communication medium and it facilitates cultural communication inside and outside of these three places. The high-speed development of modern technology leads to the variety of services that emerge in the Internet, such as discussion forum, Blog, Facebook, Twitter, etc. These new and open spaces serve as a platform for ordinary people to express themselves in different ways. General observations in the Internet reveal that the discussion on Chinese cultural identity among Hong Kong, Macau, and Mainland China exists. The combination of self-identity and reconstruction of self-cultural identity are happening in these differently colonized places. Some local Chinese people in Macau, and Taiwanese in Taiwan, share this kind of experience as well. Meanings in different issues via different symbols are formed and they can be seen from the photos that circulate in the Internet using threads posted in Blogs or discussion forums. All these kinds of images or contexts become symbols of recognizable identities. Internet use, therefore, has facilitated the cultural communication between Hong Kong, Macau, Mainland China, and Taiwan. It has also intensified the enlightenment of Chinese cultural identity, showing and highlighting in effect the remnants of recognizable traits in these territories that were once colonized by different states. In essence, they may arguably have formed heterogeneous Chinese cultural identities. This study presents the uniqueness of the formation of Macau identity in comparison to Hong Kong, and how different it was from Hong Kong after the end of the colonial period. This ‘awakening process’, it is argued, provides a new perspective for understanding the attendant connotations and evaluations of cultural identities, and the different perspectives used to understand how the Internet is reshaping the social world. The reconstruction of cultural identity is a global issue and cultural hybridity is an essential element for reconstruction of self-cultural identity in the postcolonial period. This study employs postcolonial theory, along with observation, in-depth interview and online data collection and content analysis that were adapted during the course of the research, in order to discuss this phenomenon

  • The study builts on Bateman and Schmidt’s (2011) and Tseng’s (2009) research on film as a form of “cinematographic document,” and continues their efforts to construct a semiotic mode of film. The author recognizes the complexity of undertaking research in the domain of semiotic discourse. This study argues that as film analysis is about ways of seeing and synthesizing different cinematic styles, strategies; learnt cinematic conventions and reflective viewing is imperative. The interaction of robust multimodal resources, well-defined analytic units, based on dependable models, and conducted through a discursive process should align to produce fruitful filmic discourse. The study premised on the assumption that film is more than a “self-enclosed signification system” but a crucial “cultural practice” that “reflect and inflect culture.” Taken together, this view underscores the importance and interactivity of cinema, culture and society. To this end, the study contributes to filmic meaning making, the New Hong Kong Cinema, and finally, the present study invariably serves as a form of “social document” or “cultural artifacts” in its exploration of Hong Kong ever changing identity, culture and moods.

  • This dissertation reports on a study which aims to add to the theoretical understanding of how social capital is transferred from one generation to the next in business families. Studies in the field of family business have emphasized the importance of succession for the survival of family businesses, but while the succession process and planning have been widely studied, the examination of social capital succession is scarce. As for the studies in family business’s social capital, the importance of social capital as a source of competitive advantage which already exists in business families have often been expressed, but there is a lack of research in the means of transferring this form of capital from the family business leaders to their successors. The study presented here addresses this gap in family business succession literature and social capital literature, explaining the means of transgenerational succession of social capital in family businesses. This is a qualitative research using the multiple case study method which aims to investigate the means of social capital transmission by comparing the cases of five different Chinese family businesses in Macau, which are in the succession process, with the successor currently managing the firm while the former generation business leaders are in the process of handing over the business and preparing for retirement. In doing so, this research offers a theoretical framework of explaining how social capital is transmitted from the incumbents to the successors throughout a five-stage succession process developed for this research. The forms of social capital that exists in family businesses are identified from previous literature, in order to clearly explain how these different forms of social capital are passed on from generation to generation based on the review on succession process introduced in published literature. A theoretical iii framework is formed from the two parent theories on family business succession and social capital, and is then verified empirically from five Chinese family businesses in Macau. The cases are developed through in-depth interviews with the incumbents and successors of the family businesses, informal interviews with stakeholders (including family members, business associates, non-family employees and customers), direct observation on the premises of the Chinese family businesses and secondary data, in order to study the process of intergenerational transmission of social capital in these Chinese family businesses

  • In the past three decades there have being an increase in the number of Bilateral Trade Agreements (BTAs) globally. These agreements involve huge human and financial movements and are essentially based on trade and investment. This phenomenon has brought new dimension to global business environment by changing the landscape in whichfirms from emerging markets operate in another emerging market. In the light of this, this dissertation is to examine how bilateral trade agreementsprovisions influence choice of foreign market entry mode of resource seeking Chinese Multinational Enterprises operating in Nigeria. This study adopts a qualitative design, collecting data using semi-structured interviews. The data are analyzed with content analysis and explanation building to identify themes through application of replication logic. The data obtained from the interviews regarding the research questions are presented and discussed as major findings and adoptedfor the creation of the new model for the study of resources seeking firm’s choice of market entry modes in emerging markets The model developed in this dissertation makes a contribution to theory for the study of market entry modes of MNEs from developing countries entering another developing country. In this case, Chinese resources seeking multinational firms entering Nigeria. Elements of Dunning’s OLI theory, Resources Dependency Theory, and Institution theory extended for the purpose for the theory development process. This investigation also provides important information to assist state policy actors in their development of bilateral trade agreements between China and Nigeria. Implications for firms and their involvement in developing countries and with framework where bilateral trade agreements exist are also provided

  • Mangroves are a unique group of plants, which offer a great variety of goods and services to the ecosystem and to the society. Regrettably, they have been globally threatened by urbanization and industrialization, among others, triggering overexploitation of the world’s mangrove forests despite their ecological and economic importance. As a result, mangroves are often under pollution stress as sinks or receivers for numerous man-made pollutants such as pesticides, which are the main focus of this thesis. One of the most widely applied chemicals in the word are the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) that even after their supposedly worldwide ban between 1950s-1990s, they can still be detected in the environment. Numerous studies have been done in phytoremediation of pollutants by mangroves, but little attention has been given to the role of mangroves in the remediation of OCPs. For this reason, part of this thesis will focus on the occurrence and distribution of OCPs in intertidal tropical and sub-tropical areas around the world with and without mangroves. As a first goal (I), we evaluate —in a theoretical way— if the presence of mangroves affects or modifies the levels of OCPs in the surrounding environment. For this purpose, data from different matrices, such as water, sediment, benthic fauna and plants were included and discussed in this work. Moreover, and considering Macao’s location, we also quantified OCPs from surface waters of this region from areas with and without mangroves and included in this task. Besides this theoretical approach, this thesis also included some laboratoy and field work specifically focused on dicofol and 4,4’-dichlorobenzophenone (4,4’-DCBP, its main metabolite). Dicofol is an OCP strongly related to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), which has been extensively used in China and more specifically, in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), a region under anthropogenic pressure. However, due to dicofol’s instability (i.e., sensitive to low pH, light exposure and high temperature), we expected to quantify 4,4′-DCBP (which is also common to DDT) as the main form present in the environment. As a second goal (II), we conducted a monitoring study in surface waters from Macao and Hong Kong, to evaluate the contamination status and water quality of these regions. Concentrations of 4,4’-DCBP, nutrients and physicochemical parameters were measured during transition and wet season, and at high and low tide. In addition, since the toxicity of this metabolite was totally unknown, we assessed it via two biological models: Daphnia magna and Artemia salina. Since 4,4’-DCBP was detected and quantified in both regions (2.8-30.0 ng/L), this thesis also includes experimental work focused on the assimilation and depuration pattern by a marine organism. For that purpose and as a final goal (III), we selected the common edible bivalve Meretrix as a model to evaluate the dynamics of accumulation and depuration of the pesticide dicofol. The Vietnamese clams were exposed during 15 days under two different concentrations of dicofol, and decontaminated for the same period of time. Quantification of 4,4’-DCBP was done during both phases (uptake and depuration) and at different sampling times. In summary, all these different works helped us to conclude that: I.1) As expected, vegetated areas with mangroves presented lower concentrations of OCPs for all the matrices, and also better quality in terms of pesticide pollution for water and sediments. Results obtained from Macao’s waters also revealed the same pattern, with mangroves areas having lower levels of contamination. Although the gathered data presented methodological variability (i.e. different quantification methods, extraction protocols, equipment used), the same pattern was observed among matrices, showing how robust and solid the results herein obtained are. II.1). Hong Kong presented higher concentrations of 4,4’-DCBP than Macao, which may be due to the use of dicofol as a pesticide and the use of antifouling-paint for ships. Moreover, concentrations of 4,4’-DCBP during wet season were below limits of quantification, demonstrating a seasonal pattern and a dilution effect due to higher river discharges during this period. II.2). Both regions showed possible eutrophication problems due to the high nutrient concentrations. These levels presented also a seasonal variability, with dissolved inorganic nitrogen and total dissolved solids higher during transition; and dissolved inorganic phosphorous, total suspended solids and chlorophyll a higher during wet season. II.3). Toxicity of 4,4’-DCBP was lower than the parent compound dicofol, and the levels quantified indicated a low environmental risk. However, it is important to pay attention to this compound since interaction with other contaminants could enhance their toxicity, or processes such as biomagnification or bioaccumulation could make low concentrations a threat for the environment. III.1). Different concentrations of dicofol presented different uptake and depuration kinetics. Animals exposed to higher concentrations (500 ng/L), had levels above limits of quantification (LOQ) after 24h exposure, unlike the ones exposed to lower concentrations (50 ng/L), which had levels <LOQ after the same period. The first ones also, presented lower uptake rates, and this could indicate that high dicofol concentrations in the system could affect the respiration rates of the organism. In addition, this work also showed that animals exposed to high concentrations of dicofol will need more than 15 days to depurate in order to reach safe levels for human consumption. The compilation of the work done in this thesis allowed us to better understand the role of mangroves ecosystems on the accumulation of OCPs and to provide solid information that could create strategies for mangroves management and conservation. Moreover, and as a first attempt, we were able to quantify this pesticide metabolite in the PRD (one of the most seriously contaminated areas in China), to determine its toxicity and to define its kinetics in an important organism such as the edible bivalve M. meretrix. We intend that this thesis will be helpful for the scientific community providing new insights regarding metabolite interactions (within and with other molecules) and toxicity (LC50 and theoretical risk assessment), which were unknown until now

  • This doctoral dissertation focuses on teacher education in the context of experienced tertiary English language teachers in mainland China. It investigates the changes in teachers’ beliefs and attitudes, and in their classroom practice, that result from an external inservice education and training (INSET) course. It follows up subsequent change in teachers’ classroom practice, and in their beliefs and attitudes, in their teaching contexts one year after the INSET course. This dissertation presents a review of the literature in the field of second language teacher education, shifts in research paradigms in the field, and the characterisation of inservice teacher professional development. The nature of teachers’ beliefs and attitudes, and of teachers’ classroom practice, are synthesised from the literature, and are related to research on stages of innovations. Models of change (from beliefs and attitudes to classroom practice, as well as alternative pathways) are discussed, and a conceptualisation of the processes of teacher change in the context of innovations for experienced inservice teachers is proposed. The research presents a case study of one group of teachers attending an INSET course, and uses qualitative data collection, analysis and interpretation. Findings are discussed which provide insight and guidance for INSET provision in the context of experienced teachers, and which add to the research in the field of teacher education in the context of China. The findings suggest that in the complexity of INSET among individual teachers any one model of the process of teacher change may not be applicable, but rather that multiple possible models of change exist for each teacher—in beliefs and attitudes, and in classroom practice—and for each innovation. It is likely that each individual teacher experiences different change models for different innovations during the same INSET course. The significance and implications of the findings are discussed in relation to INSET provision, teacher change, and theories of teacher education and development, as well as the limits of the study, and future research areas suggested

  • This thesis reports a mixed methods empirical research which included a university-wide survey and action research in form of a quasi-experiment in collaborative blended learning (CBL) with Macau undergraduate students. The intervention embodied the principles of social constructivism and investigated the putative benefits and challenges of CBL. The purpose of the study was to identify how to promote effective CBL in undergraduate students and to increase effective learning, motivation, autonomy, empowerment, and communication. It found that only small improvements to students’ CBL took place over time, and found that the students needed specific instruction, practice and development in how to collaborate, both with and without online learning. Despite being in a world-leading, enriched digital environment, the students were new to collaboration and online learning. Students discovered and appreciated the benefits and challenges to collaboration and CBL largely by doing it. The thesis shows that CBL does not release teachers from their instructional and pedagogical roles; rather they place teachers at the heart of effective practice and improvements. The study underpins the need for explicit training of students in CBL. It identifies several strategies and tools which can be useful to promote effective genuine CBL

Last update from database: 5/28/22, 3:23 AM (UTC)