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  • This paper adopts a political economy perspective in understanding how the country context frames the development of higher education doctoral science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs. We argue that a country's commitment to research and development spending as a strategy to maintain its economic competitiveness creates the market for research labor. This embeddedness of STEM doctoral training programs in the country's science and technology system enlarges differences between STEM and non-STEM doctoral programs. This argument is validated from a survey of doctoral students in leading Pacific Asian universities which shows that STEM doctoral programs have stronger research networks, are better financed, use better facilities, and incorporate a variety of research placements. The embeddedness of STEM programs is further illustrated from the case of Singapore. Singapore-based STEM doctoral students mention enjoying better financial support and receiving better career advice from their supervisors. They depend on collaborative peer learning and cite more varied employment options when asked about their career plans.

  • There is considerable evidence to suggest that the human capital needs of the world city differ from what Robinson calls “ordinary cities” or what Markusen and associates term as “second tier cities”. This path is blazed most notably in the field of world cities and the flow of skilled labour, in the work by Sassen and with case examples (finance, law, accountancy) provided in the work by Beaverstock and his associates. This focuses on producer services and migration flows needs to be matched by an accompanying look at city-based strategies. This paper represents an attempt to provide this by providing a case history analysis of Singapore in three stages of growth – as port city, industrial city and as world city – in order to show how the evolving infrastructure associated with human capital (education, immigration and labour policies) allows human capital to be developed, attracted, harnessed, deployed, released and retained.

Last update from database: 7/22/24, 11:01 PM (UTC)


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United Nations SDGs