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  • The purpose of this paper is to study compatibility variations in buyer-seller relationships between Mainland Chinese firms and Hong Kong Chinese buyer firms that act as intermediaries to markets in the West. Data are drawn from 19 multiple in-depth case study interviews with Mainland and Hong Kong Chinese firms and buyer firms from the West. Compatibility dimensions that provide further evidence of factors that underpin the nature of classical-type exchange arrangements, vis-à-vis relational relationships, within Chinese buyer-seller interactions are identified. Compatibility variations based on political and legal factors are driven by interpretation and application of Chinese state laws at the business and provincial levels rather than at the national level. Mainland Chinese tend to exhibit authoritative vis-à-vis Confucian-based practices and a short-term orientation within interactions. There is a need to expand the psychic distance composite to elucidate compatibility variations within the distinct provincial business regions of China. Quantitative studies to test for compatibility variability in China business practices across China are needed next. A better understanding of the nature of classical inclinations used by the Chinese is crucial, as is an understanding of how firms, both domestic and foreign, are able to leverage classical and relational relationships within Mainland China. Uncertainty associated with the entrepreneurial behaviours of Chinese businesspersons and a varying emphasis on traditional Confucian values in business result in a hybridisation of interactions across classical and relational types. Guanxi may be evolving beyond traditional social and personal trust as Mainland Chinese business relationships have advanced from the smaller scale CFB stage to the state-owned enterprise stage, and now to the larger and increasingly important world trade stage. The paper challenges shortcomings in research that has centred exclusively on the relational nature of Chinese business interactions, and it builds on previous research to study compatibility variations underpinning these Chinese interactions. It predicts a hybridisation of interactions amongst Chinese actors and provides a foundation for future quantitative research to study compatibility variations, and also classical-type business practices across China. Increased international market awareness may also be leading to the inclusion of an economic trust factor, driving classical-type Chinese buyer-seller relationships, as is more characteristic of arrangements found in Western exchanges.

  • South Korea management system has been influenced significantly by their traditional social and religious beliefs for hundreds of years. Yet, the 1997 Asian financial crisis has gradually confirmed this shifted, from the Confucius mentality to a close Westernized system. This paper aims to evaluate this management transition in South Korea. The theoretical model of the convergent-divergent, as proposed by Chatterjee and Nankervis [2006], is applied to identify a number of critical factors. The aforementioned factors altogether have influenced the management system in four main vectors: (A) From seniority to meritocracy performance management; (B) From consultative to individualistic decision-making style; (C) From ignoring to embracing corporate governance; (D) From avoiding to improving environmental sustainability.

  • If Australia has been subject to major influences by the United States and European countries, why is its economy healthier than their counter partners? What are the economic foundations that underline this anti-counter cycle of financial worldwide crisis from Australia? What are some of the lessons that countries from Europe that have not fared during the current financial worldwide crisis should learn from Australia? The purpose of this paper is to review the present Australian management system. Four changes are identified including embracement of corporate governance, a shift to adopt more R&D activities, a shift to adopt environmental sustainability practices and emerging corporate social responsibility. On the conclusions settings, a recap and recommendation on how Portugal, a member of the PIGS (Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain) Southern European Countries club forgot to embrace directives that have been applied in Australia, to avoid the actual financial and identity crisis.

Last update from database: 2/1/23, 2:28 AM (UTC)